##### Effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation on SMEs’ Innovation Performance in Sri Lanka

Lahiru Sameera Perera, S. M. A. K. Samarakoon

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 55-63
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i230367

The critical phenomenon that SMEs' innovativeness denotes has growing interest from developing country researchers from multiple fields over the last decades. Thus, the study's objective is to examine the Entrepreneurial Orientations' effect on SMEs' innovativeness in Sri Lanka. Risk-taking, proactiveness, autonomy, innovativeness, and Competitiveness have been used to operationalize the Entrepreneurial Orientation concept, and SMEs' innovation performance was conceptualized based on three dimensions. A self-administrated questionnaire is distributed to the SEM owners and collected seventy-six completed questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results of the study shown that OE as a whole significantly impacts innovative performance. Specifically, while the four dimensions of EO, namely, risk-taking, proactiveness, innovativeness, and autonomy, significantly impact SMEs' innovative performance. But, Competitiveness does not have a significant influence on SMEs' innovation performance. The study focuses only on OE that influences SMEs innovation performance. The most considerable significant portion of enterprises in Sri Lankan business sector represents SMEs. It is anticipated that Sri Lankan policy makers, SME owners, and business decision-makers will help SMEs better understand policymakers' significant impact on SMEs' innovation performance.

##### Educator Perspectives on Teacher Attrition and Retention in Private Early Childhood Schools in India

Swathi Sandesh Menon, Donna Moucha Brackin

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 13-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i230363

Teacher attrition is a challenge in many countries. This qualitative case study explored the perspectives of teachers and school leaders in India regarding how teacher attrition in private early childhood schools influences the students, teachers, parents, school leaders, and schools and the factors that stakeholders identify as important to retain teachers. Themes related to compensation for increased workloads, positive workplace relationships, schedule flexibility, teaching autonomy and rewards/recognition for work. Sharing these experiences and suggestions of educators on teacher attrition can help education leaders possibly lessen teacher attrition and retention in India.

##### Assessing the Nutritional Composition and Acceptability of Indian Almond Drink

Felicia Bonnah Quansah

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 26-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i230364

This study was to find out the nutritional composition and acceptability of Indian Almond Nuts (IAN) drink among the students of the University of Cape Coast. Experimental and descriptive research designs were adopted for the study. Proximate analysis was done on the dry matter of IAN to determine the nutrient in the nuts, juice and drinks. Mean, standard deviation and One-way ANOVA were used to analyse the data. The result had shown that IAN had protein, Oil/Fat, fibre and carbohydrate, as well as mineral elements. The mineral elements found were Phosphorous, Potassium, Sodium, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Calcium, Magnesium, Protein and carbohydrate at varied degrees in Juice with un-spiced syrup (JUS), Juice with spiced syrup with vanilla flavour (JSV), Juice with spiced syrup and pineapple (JSP); Juice with spiced syrup and strawberry flavour (JSS). Also, the result showed JSS was the most accepted formulation (4.09). The study recommends that health personnel to encourage people to take the IAN drink for the health benefits and Agriculture extension officers should educate farmers to grow more of India Almond trees for the nuts.

##### On $$G^{\beta}$$ -Proper ty of $$G$$-Metric Spaces

Mubarak AL-Hubaishi, Amin Saif

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i230365

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and investigate weak form of G-open sets in G-metric spaces, namely $$G^{\beta}$$-open sets. The relationships among this form with the other known sets are introduced. We give the notions of the interior operator, the closure operator and frontier operator via $$G^{\beta}$$-open sets.

##### Locus of Control and Self Esteem as Correlates of Secondary School Students Academic Achievement in English Language in Anambra State

L. I. Akunne, A. N. Anyamene

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 46-54
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i230366

Aims: The failure rate in English language subjects as consistently been recorded in major examinations in the country makes it a worrisome situation. This is such that the schools are gradually losing its reputation which could likely result in loss of confidence in the students. Hence, this study aims at determining the relationship among locus of control, self-esteem and secondary school students’ academic achievement in English language.

Study Design: The study adopted the correlation design.

Place and Duration of Study: 920 senior secondary school II students from Anambra State of Nigeria, between August 2019 and January 2021.

Methodology: This study on locus of control and self-esteem as correlates of secondary school students academic achievement adopted the correlational research design, a correlational research design seeks to establish relationship between two or more variables as well as indicates the direction and magnitude of the relationship between the variables The sample for the study was 920 senior secondary schools students drawn using the multi-stage sampling technique. Locus of control scale developed by Asthon Trice, revalidated by Osuji and Self-Esteem scale developed by Dr Morris Rosenberg were used in data collection. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was used in answering the research questions while t-test for correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used in testing the null hypothesis.

Results: There is a moderate positive correlation between locus of control and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language (r = .469, n = 920), there is a high positive correlation between self-esteem and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language (r = .602, n = 920). The hypotheses tested show that that the t-calculated value is greater than the t-critical value at 0.05 level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected. This shows that the relationship between locus of control and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language is statistically significant (t-cal. = 24.03, t-crit. = 1.960), that the t-calculated value is greater than the t-critical value at 0.05 level of significance hence the null hypothesis is rejected. This shows that the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language is statistically significant (t-cal. = 34.11, t-crit. = 1.960). At 0.05 level of significance, locus of control and self-esteem added statistically to the prediction of secondary school students’ academic achievement in English language.

Conclusion: There is a high positive correlation between self-esteem and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language. There is a significant relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language. Furthermore, there is a high positive correlation between self-esteem and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language. The relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of secondary school students in English language is statistically significant. Locus of control, and self-esteem added statistically to the prediction of secondary school students’ academic achievement in English language. This implies that there is need for schools to initiate and implement procedures in order to help improve the quality and consistency in the outcome of academic achievement of students in English language which is a core subject at the secondary education level.

##### Survey on Disaster Risk Reduction Measures in the Balicuatro Area Schools of Northern Samar

Randy O. Canales, Felisa L. Sanico

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 64-74
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i230368

This study sought to account the disaster risk reduction measures of the school heads of the elementary schools in the Balicuatro Area of Northern Samar in terms of information dissemination and advocacy campaign, policy mechanisms, organizational structure and mitigation measures to ensure the safety of the pupils, school personnel, properties and records. The findings showed that there was a significant relationship on the level of awareness of the respondents and the status of implementation of disaster risk reduction measures. The respondents possess some extent of knowledge on disaster risk reduction measures. The respondents’ awareness influenced their status of implementation of the measures. It can be implied that the efforts of the government to raise the awareness is effective.

##### Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) Instruction in the Secondary Schools in Northern Samar Division, Eastern Philippines

Merlita Co Tan

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 75-84
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i230369

This study used the descriptive design as it aimed to explore the Technology and Livelihood (TLE) instruction in the secondary schools in Northern Samar Division in terms of level of attainment of the objectives of Technology and Livelihood Education, level of effectiveness of the methods and techniques used in the Technology and Livelihood Education Instruction, level of adequacy of instructional materials and equipment used in the instruction of Technology and Livelihood Education, and the problems encountered in the Technology and Livelihood Education instruction. This study was conducted in selected public high schools in the Division of Samar which includes the following secondary schools: University of Eastern Philippines Laboratory High School, Catubig Valley National High School, Hibubullao National High School, Somoroy Agro-Industrial School, and Las Navas National High School. The respondents of the study were one hundred twenty eight (128) fourth year students who were taking up Technology and Livelihood Education subjects. The main tool in gathering data and information from the respondents was the questionnaire. The goal of technology education is to promote technological literacy of a broad and encompassing nature. Technology and Livelihood Education has techniques in teaching focuses on the quality of the acts used by the teacher in representing the subject matter to the pupils. It may also include the skill of the teacher in accomplishing the task of learning. It is a technical skill, or artistic execution. Technique in teaching is a factor which promotes learning through teaching with the aid of devices. Results of the study, brought out remedial measures may be developed to improve the Technology and Livelihood Education instruction in Northern Samar Division such as: The national vocational schools or public secondary schools should endeavor to offer cluster of practical courses rather than concentrating in only one or two popular courses, so that students should be fully aware that in all occupational endeavor, they should have a knowledge of marketing and selling of their goods or services, and consequently, bookkeeping and accounting. Moreover, entrepreneurship or self-employment of the students need this knowledge when running his own business; Measures should be made by the schools in providing adequate and needed essential facilities, tools, equipment, and supplies and materials to fully implement their program of practical arts in order to attract more students in interest of improved learning; The institutions need to exert greater efforts in securing more community resources to aid in the implementation of the program and to argument insufficient funding for the purchase of materials to enrich curricular offerings; Teachers need to improve their skills and competence in imparting knowledge to their students, likewise, the institutions should adequately provide for the shortage such as lack of books, instructional materials, equipment/tools and the like in order that the students may be able to derive for the instruction.

##### Recurrence Properties of Generalized Hexanacci Sequence

Yüksel Soykan

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 85-93
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i230370

In this paper, we investigate the recurrence properties of the generalized Hexanacci sequence under the mild assumption that the roots of the corresponding characerteristic polynomial are all distinct, and present how the generalized Hexanacci sequence at negative indices can be expressed by the sequence itself at positive indices.

##### Classroom Learning Environment and Self-Efficacy in Mathematics of Freshmen Engineering Students of the University of Eastern Philippines

Ramil E. Salazar, Riza C. Basierto

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 94-101
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i230371

Aims: To determine the classroom learning environment in terms of goal orientation, physical facilities, student-student interaction, teacher-student interaction, method of teaching, and the degree of self-efficacy in mathematics; and establish if there is a significant relationship between their classroom environment and the degree of self-efficacy in mathematics.

Study Design: Descriptive correlational research design.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Engineering, University of Eastern Philippines, Catarman, Northern Samar in the school year 2012-2013.

Methodology: Complete enumeration of 260 freshmen students from the College of Engineering courses: Bachelors of Science in Agricultural Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering enrolled in Mathematics were surveyed using the 50-item Learning Environment Schedule developed by Sunitha and Mathematics Self-efficacy Survey developed by Betz and Hackett. The data gathered were tabulated, analyzed, and treated statistically using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0 Version).

Results: With the total score of 50594 out of 65000 and a mean of 3.89, the respondents found the classroom learning environment in terms of goal; orientation, physical facilities, student-student interaction, teacher-student interaction, and methods of teaching to be favorable; that the total score of 17634 and a mean of 3.61 showed that respondents had much confidence or had high self-efficacy in Mathematics; and that the Pearson r of .187 with the respective significant value of .001, ,000, ,011, and,000, goal orientation, student-student interaction, teacher-student interaction and methods of teaching were found to have a significant relationship with self-efficacy in mathematics; and only physical facilities was not significantly correlated to self-efficacy in mathematics.

Conclusion: Classroom learning environment variables are significantly related to self-efficacy in mathematics.

##### Antimicrobial Effect of Additive Silver Nanoparticles to Paints for Reducing the Risk of Cross-Contamination

Rawia Mansour, Ali Mohamed Elshafei

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i230362