##### Common Neighbourhood and Common Neighbourhood Domination in Fuzzy Graphs

Abdullah Q. AL- Mekhlafi, Mahiuob M. Q. Shubatah, Saqr H. AL- Emrany

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i130352

In this paper the concepts of common neighbourhood and common neighbourhood domination in fuzzy graph G was introduced and investigated and denoted by Ncn and γcn. We obtained many results related to γcn(G) and Ncn. Finally we give the relationship of γcn(G) with some other parameters in fuzzy graphs.

##### Herbology, Antibacterial and Antihaemorrhagic Effect of Allium sativum Linn (Lilliaceae) Extracts against Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens

Kokori Bajeh Tijani, Abdullahi Attah Alfa, O. D. Omotoso, Yahaya Junaidu, Umar Sabdat Unoyiza

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i130353

Bacterial Meningitis pathogen (BMP) causes cellular hemorrhagic sepsis, metabolic, endocrine and neurologic disorders in human systems. This burden of the disease is highest in the developing countries and especially in the immunity compromised rural populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The A. sativum bulb extracts (JEAS, EEAS and AEAS) contain valuable pharmacologically active principles for antihaemorrhagic and antibacterial properties against bacterial meningitis pathogens. It extracts were evaluated in Wistar rats to provide scientific basis for ethnomedicinal uses. The phytochemical screening was conducted using standard method prescribed. Anti-haemorrhagic activity was evaluated using sterilized blade lancet to cut 2mm long and 2mm deep in the rat groin model. The coagulative effects of time were significantly at P<0.05 reduced by the bulb extracts applied as compared to that of the control. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and tannins. The result of this study revealed that A. sativum bulb extracts possessed good secondary metabolites with bioactive principles, biological and pharmacological functions. This provide scientific basis for the plant in the management of haemorrhagic sepsis and infectious disease.

##### Effects of Irrigation Systems on Farming Practices: Evidence from Oluch-Kimira Scheme, Homa Bay County, Kenya

Samson M. Makone, Evans A. Basweti, David K. Bunyatta

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i130355

Irrigation waters have vast benefits to the soils especially where they are installed. Some of the benefits of water includes: facilitating nutrient circulation within the soil profile, assist in nutrient uptake by various plants, enhance transpiration as well as enhances nutrient diffusion in the soil. But also irrigation systems have negative effects to soils mostly including environmental impacts. The current study wanted to investigate the effects of irrigation systems on farming practices in Oluch-Kimira. A survey methodology with an Ex-post facto research design was used with a sampling frame consisting of 340 small-scale farmers. A sample of 332 irrigation participants and 8 non irrigation participants were chosen for the study using random sampling. Primary data was collected through interview schedules administered to participants in irrigated agriculture and Non participants. It was revealed that before irrigation technology the level of embracing farming systems was at 3.96% (R2=0.0396) while after introduction of irrigation technologies the embracing lever increased to 55.6% (R2=0.556), a clear indication that the farming systems in the study areas improved due to presence of waters or humid environment brought about irrigation and water in general. The results also revealed that increased irrigation technologies have also improved the farming practices and eventually improved good agricultural practices.

##### Cervical Cancer Knowledge and Prevention Practices among Female Civil Servants in Awka South Local Government Area, Anambra State

Georgy O. Obiechina, Muo Chiamaka Euphemia

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i130356

Background: Cervical cancer is a potentially preventable disease if appropriate screening and prophylactic strategies are employed. However, the lack of knowledge and prevention practices can result in the underutilization of preventive strategies.

Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the cervical cancer knowledge and prevention practices among female civil servants in Awka South Local Government Area.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional research survey design was used to accomplish the purpose of the study. A self-structured and validated questionnaire was used to collect data from the sample of 335 female civil servants, while313 returned rate of female civil servants was used to analyze the data. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research questions, while Chi-Square and ANOVA were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level.

Results:  Findings revealed that 194 (61.98%)  of the respondents had no knowledge of cervical cancer while 119 (38.02%)  had knowledge of cervical cancer, however, an average  weighted mean score of  x 2.63 and ± 0.95  had a positive response that using pap smear as a procedure to test for cervical cancer is the best screening method while most of the respondents revealed that it is advisable  to go for treatment once there is a sign of STDs. Chi-Square value of difference in mean knowledge of cervical cancer among female civil servants in Awka South Local Government Area revealed that the calculated X2-value yielded 257, with significant value of 0.000 is less than P-value (P<0.05).

Conclusion: It was concluded that when knowledge about cervical cancer and its prevention is consistently communicated through difference media, relatively high number of females may be aware. Based on the conclusion, it was recommended, among others, the need for more sensitization campaigns to bridge the identified knowledge gaps and scale up cervical cancer screening services to all women to increase service uptake.

##### Factors Affecting Capillary Suction Time of Sludge Using Wet Front Distance and Filtrate Flow Rate Methods

C. Onoh, J. O. Ademiluyi, V. E. Amah

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 44-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i130357

Sludge generated during wastewater treatment is difficult to handle due to their high water content, hence a need for dewatering. The factors that affect the outcome of capillary suction time (CST) were studied using piggery and domestic sludge samples conditioned with ferric chloride. Effects of conditioner concentration, hydrostatic pressure and mixing time were investigated. Filtrate flow rate studies were also carried out as an alternative to wet front progression to determine CST. Ferric chloride was varied from 0.002 to 0.008 g/ml, hydrostatic height was varied from 20 to 40 mm while mixing time ranged from 0 to 120 sec. The optimum conditioner concentration was observed to be 0.0055 and 0.0035 g/ml for piggery sludge and domestic sludge respectively. At 5 % level of significance, hydrostatic height was observed to have no significant effect on the CST for the range of hydrostatic heights chosen. The optimum mixing time observed for 90 g/l and 30 g/l piggery sludge was 50 and 25 sec respectively. While the optimum mixing time for 28 g/l and 14 g/l domestic sludge was 10 and 5 sec respectively. Flow rate was discovered to have an inverse relationship with CST, with the optimum conditioner concentration corresponding to the peak flow rate and minimum CST for both test samples. Hence, in other to eliminate the difficulty presented by the anisotropic property of the capillary suction apparatus (CSA) filter paper, filtrate flow method can be used instead of wet front progression method.

##### Mobile Marketing Initiatives on Consumer Attitudes and Buying Behaviour of Young Consumers in Sri-Lanka

Fathima Shahina, Vilani Sachitra

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 54-67
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i130358

Purpose: Mobile marketing is act as a phenomenon of great impact and relevance for marketing communications because it provides a continuous access to the consumer “anytime and anywhere”. Development of mobile marketing has become a greater opportunity to maintain an interactive and meaningful communication with customers for businesses, especially within the young generation. Young consumers are not homogeneous audiences for mobile marketing as their usage patterns and attitudes are widely depending on their social background, technological literacy and urban/rural lifestyles. The main objective of this study is to examine the influence of innovative mobile marketing services on customer attitudes and buying behaviours of young consumers in Sri-Lanka.

Method: Quantitative approach was used to investigate the specific research objective followed by explanatory research design. The sample size for this study was 130 undergraduates attached to university of Sri Jayewardenepura. Survey method was used to collect the data and a structured questionnaire was utilised as a data collection tool.

Findings: Multiple regression analysis results revealed the statistically significant relationships between mobile marketing initiatives (mobile app marketing and SMS marketing) and customer buying behaviour. The regression-based path analysis results indicated that customer attitudes mediate the relationship between mobile app marketing and customer buying behaviour. The path analysis on SMS marketing, customer attitudes and consumer buying behavior revealed that there was no mediating effect of customer attitudes for the relationship between SMS marketing and customer buying behaviour.

Research Implications: Mobile marketing initiatives provide marketers and business to connect more closely to customers. It is important for the marketers to know the influence of mobile marketing initiatives on the consumer buying attitudes and behaviours whether they are positive or negative.

##### A Study on Sum Formulas of Generalized Tetranacci Numbers: Closed Forms of the Sum Formulas $$\sum_{k=0}^{n}kW_{k}$$ and $$\sum_{k=1}^{n}kW_{-k}$$

Y¨ uksel Soykan

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 68-85
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i130359

In this paper, closed forms of the sum formulas $$\sum_{k=0}^{n}kW_{k}$$ and $$\sum_{k=1}^{n}kW_{-k}$$ for generalized Tetranacci numbers are presented. As special cases, we give summation formulas of Tetranacci, Tetranacci-Lucas, and other fourth-order recurrence sequences.

##### Adverse Drug Effects and Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Nigeria: A Review

Mary Obidiya Okuku, Alali Dan-Jumbo

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 19-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i130354

Objectives: This review aims to assess the link between adverse drug effects and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nigeria.

Methodology: Databases were searched namely PubMed, Web of science core collection, Science direct, Global Health (CABI) and MEDLINE. Fifteen (15) primary articles (studies carried out in Nigeria) met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the review. The primary articles selected for the review were analyzed and critiqued.

Results: The articles selected for review showed that adverse drug effects is a barrier to adherence to ART.

Conclusion: The review conclude that adverse drug effect is a barrier to adherence to ART among PLWHA in Nigeria and recommends patient education on side effects of ART, the need for regular exercises, eating healthy meals and the need for physicians to simplify the regimen with regards to the amount of medication to take and the timing.

##### Management of Patients with Addison’s Disease in Dentistry: An Overview

Georges Aoun

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 86-91
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i130360

Adrenal crisis (AC) is an unexpected and possibly lethal situation of stressful interventions in patients with Addison’s disease (AD). Despite being rare in dentistry, it is to be noted that evidence indicates that 5-8% of patients with AD necessitate emergency glucocorticoid administration to treat AC annually. For that, dentists must be aware of this condition and be prepared when the clinical signs and symptoms occur.

##### A Generous Review: Novel Approaches for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System

Gopavaram Sumanth, Pooja Prakash Atpadkar, Pandupalli Krishna Reddy, Gorthi Nihar

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 92-99
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i130361

The colon is where both systemic and local conveyance of medications can occur. Local conveyance permits site treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's illness, ulcerative colitis, and so forth in any case, treatment can be created compelling if the medications can be focused on straightforwardly into the colon, in this way diminishing the systemic adverse effects. A medication should be shielded from degradation to accomplish effective colon targeting delivery, release, and absorption in the upper bit of the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) and afterward to be certain controlled delivery in the proximal colon. Pressure controlled colonic conveyance capsules, CODESTM, and the osmotic controlled medication conveyance are the more up to date advances in particular which are having in vivo site explicitness, and attainability of manufacturing process. To beat previous technique's restrictions new frameworks and advancements have been created for colon targeting. This review gives data about CDDS, new advances, limitations.