Open Access Opinion Article

Causality and Causal Explanation: The Constitution of Sufficient Reasoning in Social Research

Ssemugenyi Fred, Tindi Seje Nuru, Leso Iki Robert

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 43-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v12i430296

As Social Researchers, we have for the last one and half decades witnessed a disturbing lag in the existing body of literature for causal explanations. The majority seem to contradict and provide no clear-cut explanations about the relevancy of applying causal techniques to understand social patterns. Much as it is true that understanding social processes and patterns is in many ways more challenging than understanding the physical world, social researchers need to provide a justification to these complexities through scientific inquiry using causal techniques and interpretations. Many times social researchers concentrate on the simple linearity between cause and effect and yet its ability to explain reality is doubtable. This sounds to reason that, our focus as social experts should be on what form of social interactions extend over time in the social world to establish the links between cause and effect. Again, how relevant is the available evidence to claim that social factor X causes a change in social factor Y? In other words, is social factor Y a function of social factor X? To establish a scientific conclusion and perhaps shed light on why things in the social world are the way they are, one must logically identify a competent X that can independently predict a change in Y through covariates. In light of this, social researchers can vividly offer logical explanations to various social processes which often seem to be beyond human description.


In this paper, the researchers offer a scientific explanation concerning the various errors in reasoning within the social world and provide a distinction between various types of social explanations, articulate causal reasoning behind social processes, events and patterns in order to draw conclusions that are based on evidence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating Students’ Academic Performance in Physics Based on Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model in Rivers State

M. D. Omeodu

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v12i430293

The objective of the study was to determine the academic performance of students in physics based on their learning style. The population of the study was all science students (SS2) in Rivers state secondary schools. Sampling was done using cluster random technique. The total sample size of the study was one hundred and twenty (120) SS2 students. There were two instruments used in carrying out this study which were Kolbs’ learning style inventory/questionnaire developed by David Kolb (1984) and Physics Achievement Test (PAT) which was developed by the researcher. Percentage, Mean and standard deviation was used to analyze the data collected through the Physics achievement test. Analysis of variance was the statistical tool used to test hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study showed that convergers and assimilators are high academic achievers in Physics than other kinds of learning styles. The study recommended that Physics teachers should strive to understand the learning styles that is more common in his/her class and design physics lessons in that direction so as to aid understanding of the majority in the class.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Assessment of Medical Recording Resources in Asembling Units with Workload Staffing Needs (WISN) Methods in Bendan General Hospital, Pekalongan

Nisa Bela Aryana, Maulana Tomy Abiyasa, Hery Kurniawan, Slamet Isworo

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 18-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v12i430294

Objective: Bendan district general hospital is a type C hospital owned by the Pekalongan City Government which is demanded to have good service performance. The assembling unit in the Medical Records department at the Hospital is a unit that influences the overall service process because in this unit all medical records management for patients from all wards is managed. Research Purposes:  This study aims to find a general description of the workload and the needs of assembling officers in the medical records department. Method: This research was conducted by assembling officers, from February to March 2020, with the type of descriptive research using the interview method based on the Workload Indicator Staffing Needs (WISN) Formula.

The Results: The results of the study were based on the calculation of the WISN method so that the officers' needs were 2 people for 7 hours / day and with 6 working days / week. The effective working day in 1 year is 227 days with a standard workload of assembling medical record documents on the inpatient ward of 14887 documents and inputting data in a computer with a standard workload of 23820 documents.

Conclusion: that the workload of the assembling officer in the medical record department is not appropriate, there is still a buildup of medical records in the assembling section.

Suggestion: It is necessary to add assembling officers to the medical record unit and to provide ongoing training so that the performance of officers is compatible in performing their work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Mixed and Multiplicative Models when Trend Cycle Component is Linear

Kelechukwu C. N. Dozie, Julius C. Nwanya

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v12i430295

The purpose of this study is to present the linear trend cycle component with the emphasis on the choice between mixed and multiplication models in time series analysis. Most of the existing studies have adequately dwelt more on choice of model between additive and multiplicative, with little or no regards to the mixed model. The main aim of this study is to compare the row, column and overall means and variances for mixed and multiplicative models using Buys-Ballot table for seasonal time series. Specific objectives are 1) to obtain and compare the expected values of means for mixed and multiplicative models 2) to estimate and compare trend parameters and seasonal indices (when there is no trend, that is (b = 0)). The study indicate that column variances ( ) of the Buys-Ballot table depends on the season j only through the square of the seasonal effect for mixed model and it is for multiplicative model, a quadratic function of the column j and square of the seasonal effect .

Open Access Review Article

Treatment of Metal and Textile Fabrics Surfaces Using Plasma

Rawia Mansour, Ali Mohamed Elshafei

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v12i430292

In the next few years, the progresses in plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy. The studies conducted by scientists on plasma state not only accelerate technological developments, but also describe the characteristics and types of plasmas and improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Plasmas represent the recent fourth state of matter in addition to the three fundamental states namely solids, liquids and gases. Plasma is defined as a state of matter where the gas phase is energized until atomic electrons are no longer associated with any particular atomic nucleus or as a matter that exists as a mixture of neutral atoms, ions, electrons, molecular ions and molecules present in excited and ground states. Plasma is the result of the ionization of atoms and the level of ionization is mainly controlled by temperature, where an increase of temperature increases the degree of ionization. The term “plasma” introduced by the scientist Irving Langmuir (1928) and comes from a Greek word that means moldable or Jelly material. Plasma may be produced by either heating a gas at high temperature until it is ionized or by subjecting it to a strong electric or magnetic fields. Investigators categorized plasma as non-thermal and thermal plasma. In non-thermal plasma, the electrons are at a much higher temperature than the ions and neutral particles however, in thermal plasma, the electrons and heavier particles are in thermal equilibrium at the same temperature. Plasma treatment of surfaces is initiated when electrons, molecules or neutral gas atoms, positive ions, ions along with excited gas molecules and atoms come together and interact with a particular surface. Plasma treatments can be utilized to develop thin protective layers to metal surfaces, as surface pretreatment and cleaning are the most important operations of coating technologies, in addition to induce both surface modifications and bulk property enhancements of textile materials.