Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effect of Citrullus lanatus (Water Melon) Seeds on Alloxan Induced Hepato and Nephro Toxicity

H. E. Ogbeifun, D. E. Peters, M. O. Monanu

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v9i430224

Some data suggested that the seeds of water melon may have therapeutic benefits. We here attempted to determine ameliorative effects of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus (water melon) seeds on alloxan-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity on wistar rats. Rats were divided into 11 groups, with each group consisting of 3 rats. Groups 2-11 received single dose of 120 mg/kg b.wt. of alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. Groups 4 and 5 orally received a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. of metformin for 7 & 21 days. Groups 6, 8 and 10 orally received 200 mg/kg b.w., 400 mg/kg b.w., and 600 mg/kg b.w. of the extract respectively for 7 days while groups 7, 9 and 11 orally received same doses respectively for 21 days. The most abundant phytochemicals present in the seeds sample were flavonoids mainly catechin (70.88 ± 0.21) and anthocyanin (42.11 ± 0.89). Blood samples were collected 24 hours after 7 and 21 days of treatment. Biochemical analyses were conducted on liver-injury, kidney-injury, and oxidative-stress markers. Liver/kidney histopathology were examined. Result revealed significant (p≤0.05) reduction in liver enzyme activities, creatinine and urea and malondialdehyde levels, while the electrolyte concentrations significantly increased in the extract treated groups on day 7 and 21 when measured against group 1. The histopathological examination revealed regeneration of the liver/kidney tissues in the extract treated groups mostly in 10 and 11. Thus, aqueous extract of water melon seeds ameliorated alloxan induced hepato-/nephron-toxicity in diabetic rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Radiation Interception and Use in Some Mustard Varieties

M. A. Awal, M. O. Gani

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 11-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v9i430226

Aim: Solar radiation is the unique source of energy which drives the photosynthesis of green plants for producing biomass to living being. Use efficiency of solar radiation to produce biomass has been quantified for many crops in field condition but no study is undertaken for mustard although it is an important oil seed crop in the world as well as in Bangladesh. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the radiation-use efficiency of mustard crop.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the Crop Botany Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the winter season extended from November 2011 to March 2012.

Methodology: Treatments comprised six mustard varieties viz. BINAsarisha-3, BINAsarisha-4, BINAsarisha-5, BINAsarisha-6, BINAsarisha-7 and BINAsarisha-8 which were grown following standard cultivation techniques to optimize the growth and development. Radiation measurements along the growing season were carried out during solar noon on some sunny days with a Radiometer connected to a 1 m long Line Quantum Sensor.

Results: Mustard varieties showed wide variation in terms of plant height, branch number, leaf area index (LAI), dry matter (DM) accumulation, yield components and yield and radiation interception and use. BINAsarisha-6 showed better performance on the aforesaid traits followed by BINAsarisha-7 while lower performance was observed in BINAsarisha-3 and BINAsarisha-4. The higher seed yield (2.41 t ha-1) was obtained in the BINAsarisha-6, the variety also showed higher radiation-use efficiency, RUE (3.75 g MJ-1 PAR) whereas the lower seed yield (about 2.1 t ha-1) was observed in the BINAsarisha-3 or BINAsarisha-4, the varieties also showed the lower RUE (<3 g MJ-1 PAR) which indicate that the higher accumulation of DM in BINAsarisha-6 variety as influenced by higher utilization of solar radiation effectively constitute the seed yield. The temporal RUE showed much fluctuated pattern in all the varieties and higher RUEs were observed at the later part of the crop growth. The variety BINAsarisha-6 also showed the higher seasonal mean RUE whereas BINAsarisha-4 showed the lower.

Conclusion: Mustard varieties showed wide variation in growth, yield and radiation interception and use. Higher biomass production as well as higher seed yield is associated with higher utilization of solar radiation.

Open Access Original Research Article

ICT Literacy and Usage for Quality Education in Public Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State, Nigeria

Okoye, Faith Ogechukwu, Okwuogu, Kosy Peterdamian

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v9i430227

The study investigated the extent of ICT literacy and usage for quality education in tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. The population of the study comprised 905 lecturers from 5 public tertiary institutions in Anambra State, while 200 lecturers representing 110 females and 90 males (22%) were drawn as the sample size using simple random technique. The instrument for data collection was a 23 item questionnaire validated by three experts, one from Educational Management and Policy Department and one expert from Measurement and Evaluation Unit in Educational Foundations Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha which yielded co-efficient value of 0.78. Data obtained were analyzed through mean and t-test statistic at 0.05 level of significance. The findings indicate that lecturers in Anambra State public tertiary institutions have low extent of ICT literacy for they still operate on the emerging stage but their usage of some basic ICT device like phones and browsers was relatively high. Lack of training on ICT, inadequate ICT facilities and government support/provisions militate against ICT literacy and usage by lecturers in tertiary institutions. Gender has no significant effect on the extent of ICT literacy and usage by tertiary institution lecturers for quality education. Based on the findings, the study recommended inter alia that, ICT training and re-training of lecturers should be upheld by the administrators of tertiary institutions while government’s adequate provisions for ICT facilities is an imperative, to enhance lecturers productivity and efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Line X Tester Analysis for Protein Content in Quality Protein Maize (QPM) (Zea mays L.) Genotypes

A. Muhammad, T. S. Bubuche, I. U. Mohammad, M. S. Na-Allah

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v9i430228

Aims: To determine superior cross combination between QPM and tester (normal maize) genotypes in protein, tryptophan and lysine content so to enhanced protein content in locally adopted Maize Varieties (Tester) through Line X Tester method aimed in reducing protein deficiency in the study area and sub-Saharan Africa at large.

Study Design: Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates and two border rows were used at the end of each replicate to minimize the border effect. Twenty-four 24 (12 x 2) crosses combinations were recovered through the Line X Tester Mating Method. 

Place and Duration of Study: Field trial was conducted at Jega Teaching and Research farm of Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero (KSUSTA), Kebbi State Nigeria, during 2018 and 2019 rainy seasons.

Methodology: Experimental material comprised twelve quality protein maize (QPM) (female parents), two testers (male parents or normal maize) with diverse genetic base and one check for comparison (CML312/CML442 tester A and CML202/CML395 tester B and one check Yar acre C) were grown. The emasculation was carried out where the tassels of the female plants (seed parents or line) were removed immediately as soon as appeared, through the process called detasseling and Ear where put in selfing bag for 1 to 2 days after emergence and tassels of selected male parents (Tester) were covered with waterproof selfing bag one day after emergence, pollens from tester were dusted over the silk of line and care was taken in each stage to avoid contamination of pollen grains from tagged tester with foreign pollens.

Results: Analysis of Variance revealed that, genotypes CML503 (L4 x T1) recorded highest in crude protein in a combined mean performance with 9.1% but recorded lowest lysine and tryptophan of 3.1% and 0.4% respectively and there was drastic reduction in crude protein from 2018 (9.4%) to 2019 (8.8%), lysine from 2018 (4.1%) to 2019 (3.9%) and tryptophan from 2018 (0.8%) to 2019 (0.6%), However, local check recorded an increase in crude protein, lysine and tryptophan Crude protein increased from 2018 (1.4%) to 2019 (2.4%) and in combined mean performance (5.4%), lysine also increased from 2018 (0.2%) to 2019 (0.9%) and tryptophan 2018 (0.002%) to 2019 (0.90%).

Conclusion: Study concluded that highly significant differences among genotypes indicated the presence of inherent genetic differences among treatments and hybrid of the cross between QPM CML503 and the tester-A (L4 x T1) could be used for breeding programme aimed at protein improvement and therefore, could be grown by the maize producers for crude protein, lysine and tryptophan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Maximum Cycle Temperature and Pressure Ratio for Optimum Design and Operations of Gas Turbine Power Plant

Joseph Benedict Bassey, Isaac F. Odesola, Dennis A. Asobinonwu

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 40-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v9i430230

Aims: The performance of gas turbine is influenced by a number of factors which may be classified under three main headings: design limiting conditions, environmental dependent conditions and system respond condition. The design limiting conditions have been found to have influenced gas turbine performance most. In this study, two design limiting conditions (pressure ratio and maximum cycle temperature) were evaluated and estimated for optimal design and operations of gas turbine.

Study Design: Hierarchical order in selecting the two design condition parameters was proposed.

Methodology: Steady state energy and exergy concept was used to model the behavior of the plant.

Results: Result obtained indicated that at maximum cycle temperature of 1173K, 1273K, 1373K, 1473K, 1573K, and 1673K,maximum pressure ratio for optimal performance were 19, 24, 29, 36, 44 and 51 respectively.

Conclusion: These results provide insight into the performance behavior of gas turbine and also serve as a guide for operations and design optimization.