Open Access Original Research Article

Conditions and Congestion Level amongst Correctional Services in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

N. C. Okiwe, O. P. Abu, K. A. Anele

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v9i230214

Aims: To examine the Nigerian Correctional Service Condition and Congestion level in the Selected States in the Niger Delta Region.

Study Design: Cross sectional survey design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in selected states and location of correctional service in Niger Delta Region which include Rivers, Delta and Akwa Ibom States between December 2017 and September 2018.

Methodology: Simple random sampling technique was adopted in selecting Three Hundred and Eighty-Seven (387) inmates using the Taro Yarmane Formular from the population of Eleven Thousand Six Hundred and Thirty-Five (11,635). Primary and Secondary data were used for this study. Primary data were obtained through the administration of questionnaire. The set of questionnaires was administered to inmates to elicit information on the facilities and comfortability of the prison and the welfare service available. The secondary source of information that were employed included relevant official publications and records from Nigerian Correctional Service, journal articles, periodicals and internet sources. Frequency, percentage, tables were used in presenting information on Demographic Characteristics of respondents. The hypotheses were tested using the Chi Square Statistical tool.

Results: The result of the study showed that the selected prisons are highly congested in capacity as against the actual capacity.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the selected prisons are congested and the inmate’s welfare are inefficient and ineffective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Crude oil Degradability Efficiency of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Comamonas testosteroni in Soil

N. P. Akani, D. N. Ogbonna, S. I. Douglas, V. G. Awari

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 11-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v9i230215

Comparative evaluation of crude oil degradability efficiency of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Comamonas testosteroni with nutrient amendment were investigated in Crude oil Contaminated Soil. The bacteria species used in this study were isolated from the soil collected from Rivers state university research farm using standard microbiological methods. Evaluation and monitoring of bioremediation were done for a period of 56 days while analyses were carried at a constant interval of seven (7) days. Seven (7) experimental set-ups were employed using black polythene bag, The bags were perforated to enhance aeration,  each containing 5 kg of agricultural soil and left to fallow for 6 days, on the seventh day each of the experimental set-ups (5kg of soil) except the control (CTRL) were contaminated with crude oil (COCS) giving initial Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) value of 10328.03 mg/kg; after which it was allowed for 21 days to ensure even distribution and soil-oil bonding to mimic crude oil spill site before application of augmenting bacteria; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BC) and Comamonas testosteroni (CM) and the stimulant; Goat manure (GM). Soil profile before and after contamination were analyzed while parameters like Sulphate, pH, Nitrate and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), as well as microbial analyses such as Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Heterotrophic Fungi (THF), Hydrocarbon Utilizing Bacteria (HUB) and Hydrocarbon Utilizing Fungi (HUF) were monitored and evaluated throughout the experimental period. Bioremediation efficiency was estimated from percentage (%) reduction of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) from day 1 to the residual hydrocarbon at day 56 of bioaugmented/biostimulation set-ups with the control. The microbiological result of the soil before and after contamination revealed that Bacillus sp had the highest percentage for bacterial isolates while Mucor sp. had the highest percentage for fungal isolates in both uncontaminated and contaminated soil. Colonial count of uncontaminated soil ranged from 5 x104 (HUB) <7 x 104 (HUF) <1.6 x 105 (THF) to 2.58 x 108 (THB) while contaminated soil colonial count ranged from 8 x 104 (HUB) < 9 x 104 (HUF) <2.0 x105 (THF) to 2.10x108 (THB). Microbial evaluation of the bioremediation set-ups showed increased colonial values with increase in time but slightly decreased on the last day. Results of total petroleum hydrocarbon revealed the actual amount of hydrocarbon reduction after the experiment and its percentage hydrocarbon remediated from the initial concentration in the various treatment setups  in the following  decreasing order;(CTRL) 125.71 mg/kg; 1.21% < (COCS + BC) 1855.74 mg/kg; 17.96% < (COCS + CM) 2261.01 mg/kg; 21.89% < (COCS + CM+ BC) 3321.23 mg/kg; 32.15% < (COCS + GM + BC) 4983.81 mg/kg; 48.25 < (COCS + GM + CM) 7313.47 mg/kg; 70.81%. Conclusively, the results obtained indicate that Comamonas testosteroni with nutrient amendment had the more degradability efficiency compared to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. It is therefore recommended that bioremediation crude oil polluted soil using bioaugmentation technique should be amended with organic nutrient to enhance efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blood Lipids and Its Atherogenic Indices in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Male Rats

O. D. Chikezie, S. C. Meludu, I. S. I. Ogbu, B. N. Egejuru, T. Ude, O. Ekuma-Ogbonnia

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v9i230216

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders which result to excessive accumulation of blood sugar over a prolonged period. Due to higher risk of diabetes mellitus to cardiovascular disease, it is crucial to identify and address these cardiovascular risks. This study assessed the effects of diabetes on levels of some blood lipids and its atherogenic indices in diabetic male rats.

Methods: This is an experimental study that involved 40 apparently healthy adult male albino rats (wistar strain) which were randomly assigned to five groups (A, B, C, D and E) of eight (8) animals each. Group A (Normal Control of No intervention for 72 hours), Group B (Diabetic rats of 72 hours post diabetes induction), Group C (metformin treated diabetic rats), Group D (Diabetic Control untreated) and Group E (Normal Control of 3 weeks post diabetes induction). Seven milliliters of fasting blood sample were collected from all the subjects. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) were determined using standard methods. Atherogenic indices, non HDL cholesterol (Non HDL-c), cardio risk ratio (CRR), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), atherogenic coefficient (AC) and atherosclerosis index (AI) were calculated. It was analyzed statistically using SPSS version 23.0.

Results: The mean values of HDL-c was significantly higher in the treated diabetic group when compared with untreated diabetic control (P<0.05) while TC, TG, LDL-c, VLDL-c, Non HDL-c, CRR, AIP, AC and AI were significantly lower in treated diabetics when compared to the untreated diabetic control (P<0.05). Also, blood mean levels of HDL-c were significantly lower in the diabetic groups (treated and untreated) when compared with non diabetic control (P<0.05) while TC, TG, LDL-c, VLDL-c, Non HDL-c, CRR, AIP, AC and AI were significantly higher in the diabetic groups (treated and untreated) when compared with non diabetic control (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The study suggests that atherogenic indices can serve as predictive pointer for future cardiovascular event especially, when LDLc value is normal. Also hyperglycemia could cause significant alterations of lipids, but metformin treatment has showed not only hypoglycemic effect, but also anti-hyperlipidemic properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

On Generalized 2-primes Numbers

Yuksel Soykan

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 34-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v9i230217

In this paper, we introduce the generalized 2-primes sequences and we deal with, in detail, three special cases which we call them 2-primes, Lucas 2-primes and modified 2-primes sequences. We present Binet’s formulas, generating functions, Simson formulas, and the summation formulas for these sequences. Moreover, we give some identities and matrices related with these sequences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Vetch Varieties/Genotypes for Their Agronomic Performance and Nutritive Value in Selected Midland of East Guji Zone, Adola, Southern Oromia and Ethiopia

Teshale Jabessa, Zinash Amare, Genet Dejene

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 54-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v9i230218

A study was conducted to identify adaptability, high biomass and dry matter and grain yielder of vetch varieties/genotypes at Bore Agricultural Research Center Adola sub-site. The three vetch varieties/genotypes tested were Vicia dasycarpa, Lalisa and 5187. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was employed to evaluate the variety. The result revealed that date of 50% flowering, date of maturity, pod length per plant and plant height was significantly different (at p<0.05) between treatments. The early flowered genotype was 5187 (62 days) and late flowered variety was recorded from Vicia dasycarpa (79.9 days). The highest value of plant height was measured from Lalisa variety, while the shortest plant height was recorded from 5187 genotypes (67.7 cm). Date of 50% emergency, pod per plant, fresh biomass yield and grain yield and chemical composition dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), acid detergent fiber (ADF), total ash content (TASH) and organic matter (OM) did not show significant difference between treatments at (P>0.05). Numerically had different values. Both the highest fresh biomass yield and grain yield was obtained from Lalisa variety (2.9 t/ha) and 22.7 qt/ha respectively. The lowest value of biomass and grain yielder was produced from 5187 accessions (1.9 t/ha) and Vicia dasycarpa 11.3 qt/ha. Lalisa variety was highest in organic matter (OM), total ash content (TASH), crude protein (CP) and less in neutral detergent (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) content while, Vicia dayscarpa was highest in crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent (NDF) and less in organic matter (OM), content total ash content (TASH) and crude protein (CP) content, 5187 genotype had the highest in dry matter (DM) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) and less in crude protein (CP) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) content than the rest accessions. The result of this study implied that Lalisa variety was well adapted and being productive regarding the plant height, biomass yield and seed yield. Lalisa variety, which is hopeful to fill the gap of low quantity ruminant feed supply of the community in the study area. Based on its adaptable, high biomass, high plant height, high grain yield, good CP and OM Lalisa is recommended for further promotion in the midland of East Guji zone.