Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Effects of Methanolic Extracts of Spondias mombin Leaves and Curcuma longa Rhizomes on Serum Lipid Profile and Electrolytes in Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Wistar Rats

Saronee Friday, Sunday O. Ojeka, Okekem Amadi, Ogadinma N. Ilochi, Datonye V. Dapper

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v8i330198

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; the possible uses of Spondias mombin and Curcuma longa rhizomes for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disorders have become prevalent in our environment.

Aim: The present study attempts a Comparative assessment of the effects of methanolic extracts of Spondias mombin leaves and Curcuma longa rhizomes on serum lipid profile and electrolytes in alloxan induced diabetes in male wistar rats.

Methodology: 90 male wistar rats were randomly divided into 9 groups of 10 rats each. Diabetes was induced intraperitonially using alloxan at 200 mg/kg-bw. The different rat Groups were treated with extracts and glibenclamide orally for 42 days as follows: Group 1: untreated non diabetic; Group 2: untreated diabetic; Group 3: diabetic + low dose Spondias mombin; Group 4: diabetic + high dose Spondias mombin; Group 5: diabetic + low dose Curcuma longa; Group 6: diabetic + high dose Curcuma longa; Group 7: diabetic + low dose combined Spondias mombin and Curcuma longa; Group 8: diabetic + high dose combined Spondias mombin and Curcuma longa; and Group 9; diabetic + glibenclamide. Blood was collected on day 43 by cardiac puncture for determination of serum lipid profile and electrolytes.

Results: Compared to Group 2, total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and electrolytes were significantly reduced while high density lipoprotein was significantly increased in all treated Groups (p<0.05). Compared to Groups 3 to 6, Groups 7 and 8 rats showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein as well as electrolytes (p<0.05): however, high density lipoprotein was significantly increased (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Spondias mombin showed better hypolipidemic effects compared to Curcuma longa.  However, results show that combined treatment with both extracts had better hypolipidemic effects than administration of individual extracts. Further research is recommended to evaluate the possible mechanism of action of these extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Polycultural Productivity of Maize (Zea mays L.) as Affected by Tillage Practices, Fertilizer Rates and Intercropping Systems in the Guinea Savannah Agroecology, Ghana

Philip Ghanney, Joseph Xorse Kugbe, Benjamin Kongyeli Badii

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 10-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v8i330199

Soil impoverishment remains a major constraint to food crop production in the Guinea Savanna agroecology of Ghana. Most soils identified in this ecology are fragile and deficient in nutrients due to inappropriate management practices. To resolve this challenge, field studies were conducted to assess the polycultural productivity of maize as affected by tillage practices, fertilizer rates and intercropping systems. The study was however conducted in two cropping seasons (2016 and 2017) at Yagaba in the Mamprugu Moaduri District of Northern Ghana. Treatments consisting of 2 tillage practices (direct seeding and ploughing), 2 fertilizer application rates (zero rate [0-0-0 kg/ha NPK] and recommended rate [60-30-30 kg/ha NPK]) and 3 intercropping systems (sole maize, cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp] and soybean [Glycine max L.]) were factorially examined in three replications using randomized complete block design. Although the maize responded differently to the varied treatments, its exposure to ploughing, 60-30-30 kg/ha fertilizer rate and soybean intercropping system were in general influential in enhancing vegetative growth, yield and yield components. The responsiveness of maize to ploughing and 60-30-30 kg/ha fertilizer rate increased grain yield by 8.60% and 37.68%, respectively than their untreated controls. Regardless of not directly supplying the intercrops with the inorganic fertilizer, nodulation count and effectiveness of cowpea and soybean were improved under ploughed fields treated with 60-30-30 kg/ha fertilizer rate. The combined impact of ploughing, 60-30-30 kg/ha fertilizer rate and soybean integration resulted in higher profit returns. Hence, this study recommends to small-holder farmers in the Guinea Savannah agroecology of Ghana to adapt to the implementation of ploughing, 60-30-30 kg/ha fertilizer rate and soybean intercropping system for yield improvement and profit maximization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Disparities in the Applications to Higher Education in Nigeria: A Coefficient of Variation Approach

C. P. Obite, D. C. Bartholomew, G. U. Ugwuanyim, N. P. Olewuezi

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v8i330200

In this paper, we used the univariate coefficient of variation to estimate the disparities in the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) applicants in all the States for both male and female from 2010 to 2018 and the multivariate coefficient of variation to estimate the disparities in the JAMB applicants for the different geopolitical zones for both male and female from 2010 to 2018. For the States, Zamfara State recorded the highest variation for both male and female while Adamawa and Osun States recorded the least variation for male and Edo State, the least for female. For the geopolitical zones, South West had the least variation for male and South-South, the least for the female while the North East had the highest variation for both male and female. The study shows that the Northern States and Zones had a high disparity rate in the study period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Land Use/Land Cover Detection and Its Impact on the Human Environment Using Geospatial Techniques in the University of Port Harcourt Host Communities, Nigeria

Collins H. Wizor, Olatunde S. Eludonyi

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 40-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v8i330202

This study examines the use of GIS and Remote Sensing in Mapping Land Use/Land Cover changes in the University of Port Harcourt host communities, mainly Choba, Aluu and Alakahia, between 2005-2010 and 2010-2015, to recognise the changes that have taken place in these peri-urban areas within the period of study. The study aim is to detect and map the land use/land cover of the area over a period of 10 years (2005-2015). Three data set of Landsat Satellite images were layer-stacked, after which supervised classification in EARDAS imagine software was carried out and mapping in Arc GIS software were carried out. Five land use and land cover categories were distinguished: built-up areas, cultivation, vegetation, and water body. The results of the study show rapid growth in built-up land between 2010 and 2015, whereas the periods between 2005 and 2010 witnessed an increase in this class also. The rapid increase in built-up areas revealed by the study is due to the rapid urbanization and industrialization in the peri-urban area. It was further observed that the increasing population of students in the area brings about much more demand on housing, which resulted in a great detrimental effect on the land cover of the area in recent years. The study, therefore, recommends, amongst others, the regulation of land use in the peri-urban area, encouragement of afforestation by government and other critical stakeholders, and provision of a mitigating control measure to realistically address the contemporary issues of rapid urbanization in the peri-urban areas.

Open Access Review Article

A Thoughtful Overview of Social Media Usage among Students and Its Impact on their Academic Work

Evans Atteh, Isaac Assan-Donkoh, Yaw Ackaah Mensah, Augustine Boadi, Silas Cudjoe Badzi, Vincentia Terkwor Lawer

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v8i330201

Social media refers to the means of interactions among people in which they create, share and exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. It allows users to converse and interact with each other, to create, edit and share new forms of textual, visual and audio content. Social media has started creating a negative impact by permeating today’s society with millions of us engrossed, unhealthy addiction, in the latest happenings via apps such as WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter and so on. With technology booming rapidly from year to year and the younger generations are the ones caught in this rapid change, it is, therefore, crucial to throw more light on the impact of social media on the academic performance of students.