Open Access Original Research Article

Corporate Governance and Corporate Fraud: An Examination of Interaction Effects in Nigeria

Temple Moses

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v4i130098

This research paper examined the relationship between corporate governance and the commission of corporate fraud among quoted companies in Nigeria. The research utilized a sample of eighteen (18) companies whose data were collected through content analyses on the basis of the availability of information from annual reports and other media reports. Data for the study were analyzed using a binary logit multiple regression analysis method. The findings of the study showed that there is a negative relationship between the independence of the board of directors and corporate fraud. The findings further show that there is a negative relationship between the commitment of the audit committee to their roles and corporate fraud. Finally, the findings show that there is a positive relationship between ownership structure and the phenomenon of corporate fraud in organizations. From the findings of the study, it is concluded that increasing the number of independent members in the board of directors will increase the ability of the board of directors to checkmate fraud commission. However, the ability of independence of board members to forestall corporate fraud is below the optimal level. It is also concluded that the commitment of the audit committee is an important deterrent of corporate fraud. Finally, increased concentration of ownership with only a few individuals will lead to increased fraud. Thus, it is recommended that the number of independent members in the board of directors be statutorily increased. Finally, it is recommended that the concentration of ownership in a few hands be discouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Age Cohorts on Life Cycle Retirement Planning

Jee Yoong Folk

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v4i130099

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cohort effect on different stages of the financial life cycle and the extent of planning for a financial safety net. A total of 990 questionnaires were distributed randomly in the Klang Valley of Malaysia which is the largest and most cosmopolitan region resulting in a 55.2% return rate. Analyses using hierarchical and ordinary regression were applied on four hypotheses. The results revealed that age cohort variables made significant contribution to life cycle retirement planning, particularly the younger age cohort. Strong relationship was found between current financial resources and consumption for all age cohorts. On the other hand, there were no significant effect between current financial resources and age cohorts except that the older age cohorts were relatively more significant predictors. The implication was that not only should their individual perceptions of retirement planning become an increasingly important part of people  s long-term commitment throughout their life-cycle, it must also assume the role as a self-directed life-long learning process, in view of the ever-changing and complicated financial environment. Consumption pattern would have reduced post retirement. During their retirement years, healthcare will become ever so important as the elderly cohorts will have different degrees of health, illness, and disability. This can translate to higher cost within the same age cohort.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatotherapeutic Tendency of Citrullus lanatus Rind Methanolic Extract on Liver Markers in Male Wistar Rats

Ilochi Ogadinma, Chuemere Arthur Nwafor, Bassy Samuel

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v4i130101

It is a common practice to dispose the peel or rind of fruits. Interestingly, some parts of fruits humans find unacceptable to eat actually possess bioactive nutrients that can be used for medicinal purposes.  The effect of methanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus rind on liver function in normal male wistar rats was studied. 24 wistar rats with body weight between 150-250 g were used for this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups, with 6 rats in each. Group 1 contained the control given normal saline and feed; group 2, low dose, 50mg/kg of methanolic extract of  Citrullus lanatus rind was administered, group 3 and 4 were administered medium and high dose of Citrullus lanatus rind extract 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg respectively. The Citrullus lanatus rind extract was administered via orogastric route and the experiment lasted for a period of 56 days. Blood samples were collected by left ventricular cardiac puncture for liver function test at the last day of the experiment.  The outcome of this research revealed that medium and high dose administration of citrullus lanatus rind significantly (p≤0.05) reduced the serum level of liver enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and also total protein.There was a non-significant (P≤0.05) change in serum total bilirubin and albumin when all doses were compared to the control. Prolonged and moderate ingestion of Citrullus lanatus rind may be of benefit in regulating blood level of liver enzymes; hence, this part of the fruit has therapeutic value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitudes of Male Undergraduate Students towards Choosing the Female Under/Graduate Students as Marriage Partners within the Hausa-Folk

Muhammad Mustapha Umar, Abu-Ubaida Sani, Sumayya Yahaya

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v4i130102

Marriage partner selection, though something very close to us, has not been as simple and straight forward as the name denotes. Rather, it involves a lot of specialty and competence to accomplish. In fact, it has been a very serious and contentious subject of discussion amongst scholars. Various factors determine the selection of marriage partners, which vary from a society to another. This study is set to investigate into the attitude of undergraduate male students towards selection of female graduate and or undergraduate students as marriage partners, with the view of ascertaining if level of females’ education in Northern Nigeria (and especially within the Hausa-folk) is a determining variable for a female to be chosen in marriage. The population of the study consists of all the students of the Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria, which equals to 560 students. Total number of 226 students are selected as the sampled population. Moreover, questionnaire is used as the research instrument. The instrument was submitted to experts in the departments of Science and Vocational Education, and Educational Foundations respectively for validity check. However, the findings of the study indicate among others that, male undergraduate students have positive attitudes towards the selection of female under/graduate students as marriage partners. Finally, the research upper some suggestions among which one is that, there should be further study on the attitudes of other Hausas of different socio-economic status towards females’ education.

Open Access Review Article

Genotoxicity and Environmental Implications of Crude Oil-related Pollutants in Nigeria

Florence O. Ajah, Julian O. Osuji, Geoffrey O. Anoliefo

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v4i130103

This paper reviews the mechanistic and genetic effects of spilt crude oil and associated drill site chemicals on some Nigerian plants. Methods that range from morphological and physical observations, physico-chemical, anatomical, cuticular to cytological and cytogenetic analyses were reviewed. Quality data on various negative consequences of exposure of plants to pollution and contamination by crude oil-related pollutants were x-rayed. Proper legislation, monitoring and enforcement of sound environmental Laws by stakeholders were advised. Government collaboration with research institutions in order to keep abreast with new research findings was suggested as a way to help strengthen, manage and reinforce environmental Laws in order to protect our sources of food.