Evaluation of the Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Anti-oxidant Activities of Leafy Vegetable Powders Fortified "Danwake" (A Northern Nigerian Cassava- Cowpea Dumpling)

Masaya Ajiya Fatima

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Agbara Gervase Ikechukwu *

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Afodia Kassum Litini

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Kyari Bawagana

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Alkali Mohammed Yakaka

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Danwake is cassava-cowpea flour with baobab leaf powder-based dumpling a common meal for the lower-income people of Northern Nigeria. In this study, attempts were made to compare danwake produced 10 g eight hitherto leafy powders or their combination (5 g+5 g) with traditional baobab powder were used to fortify randomized cassava-cowpea (70:30) in a completely linear and interactive experimental design. Standard procedures were used to evaluate the proximate, mineral, phytonutrient, vitamin Aand C and the antioxidant activity of the cooked danwake using a total of 15 raw formulations (8 linear and 7 interactive runs). Moisture, crude protein, total ash, crude fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents varied significantly in both the linear and interactive outcomes as follows (29-49.80%; 21.91-68.52%; 3.33-6.17%; 6.480-11.74%; 2.177-4.633, 2.467-4.467%; 0.420-0.657%,0.350-0.500%; 1.850-5.210%; 3.43-6.76% and 34.24-58.43%, 9.307-64.11%). Potassium was the dominant element of all greater in the linear outcome (1716-1258 mg/100 g) than in the interactive outcome (1400.69-101 mg/100 g) because of the addition of potash, iron, zinc, copper and manganese level were low in both outcomes. Phytate and oxalate content were higher in the interactive outcome than the linear 209.1-230.0 mg/100g, 206.2-273.01 mg/100 g and 0.040-0.545%, 0.014-0.240% respectively. While total flavonoids and phenolic compounds were observed to be greater in the linear outcome respectively (145.7-200.04 mg/QE/100 g and 326.0-836.8 mgGAE/100 g). Combined leafy powders produced danwake with greater vitamin C (6.455-8.331 mg/100 g) and vitamin A (0.027-0.490 µg/100 g) but comparable radical scavenging activity (81.10-116.99%). In general vegetable powders from mint, celery, parsley, moringa among others produced danwake with greater nutritional values and antioxidant activity and are recommended for use in danwake preparation.

Keywords: Danwake, leafy vegetables, minerals, vitamins, antioxidant activity, phytonutrients


How to Cite

Fatima, Masaya Ajiya, Agbara Gervase Ikechukwu, Afodia Kassum Litini, Kyari Bawagana, and Alkali Mohammed Yakaka. 2024. “Evaluation of the Nutrients, Anti-Nutrients and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Leafy Vegetable Powders Fortified ‘Danwake’ (A Northern Nigerian Cassava- Cowpea Dumpling)”. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports 18 (8):54-67. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajarr/2024/v18i8709.

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