Open Access Original Research Article

Cost-benefit Analysis of Cocoa Production in Idanre Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

O. P. Oladoyin, O. A. Aturamu

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i230451

This study was carried out to investigate the cost-benefit of cocoa production in Idanre Local Government Area of Ondo State. Primary data were used for this study and a well-structured questionnaire and personal interview were used for the collection of the data. The production data covered a period of 3years (2018-2020). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgetary technique and multiple regression analysis. The study showed that the majority (64.2%) of the farmers were within the active age group, with an average age of 55years old. About 72.5% of the cocoa farmers were male and 27.5% were female. The majority (68.3%) of the farmers were married and nearly (65.0%) had a household size of 4 – 6 members. The sampled cocoa farmers had an average farming experience of 17 years, while about 75% of the farmers had formal education and 25% had no formal education. The study revealed that the total costs were estimated to be N165,001.85, N120,822.62 and N108,243.55 for the period of 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. The study recorded a Net Farm Income of N360,437.17, N499,228.80 and N591,993.82 across the years. The result of the cost-benefit analysis showed that at an interest rate of 20%, cocoa production was profitable. Also, a benefit-cost ratio of 4.48 was obtained indicating that for every N1 invested in cocoa production, a profit of N3.48 kobo was made as a profit which implies that cocoa production was profitable in the study area. The result revealed that inadequate credit facilities are the major constraint in the study area followed by inadequate modern equipment. This implies that the majority of the cocoa farmers are still practising the traditional farming method. Therefore, it is recommended that extension workers should be visiting the farmers in the study area regularly to enlighten them on modern techniques to adopt to boost cocoa production in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Microbiological Analysis of Ikogosi Warm Water Spring

A. C. Olaleye, T. M. Ilesanmi, O. O. Oladipo

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i230453

Introduction: Water is one of the indispensable natural resources for the continued existence of all living things including man.

Aims: This study investigated the bacterial diversity in Ikogosi warm spring in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Water samples were taken for analyses from Ikogosi warm spring and analyses were made of the hot stream, cold stream, and meeting point region. Twenty isolates were characterized by morphological, biochemical, physiological characteristics and thermophilic screening was carried out.

Results: The results revealed that electrical conductivity was 215.050 μmS/cm, (cold); 320.500 μmS/cm (warm), and 305 μmS/cm (meeting point), temperature was close (24.5oC, cold to 37oC, warm). pH, total dissolved solids and chlorine were all far below the WHO guideline values. Average ranges of the heavy metals in water samples were: 1.080, 0.424 and 0.343 ppm iron (Fe) in hot, cold and meeting point samples respectively, 0.010, 0.006 and 0.004 ppm lead (Pb) in hot, cold and meeting point samples respectively; and 0.006, 0.010 and 0.019 ppm chromium (Cr) in hot, cold and meeting point samples respectively. Nickel (Ni), Arsenic (As) and Cadmium (Cd) were not detected. Bacteria majorly found in water samples were Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Staphylococcus spp. Out of the twenty (20) isolates screened at high temperature range of 45oC to 65oC, all grew at 45oC and 50oC while nine (9) grew at 55oC. Only two isolates were able to survive at 60oC, while none grew at 65oC.

Conclusion: These isolates can be in the production of thermostable enzymes which can be used in biotechnology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Undergraduates and Postgraduates Pertaining Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study amongst Sudanese Health Professional Students

Hiba Awadelkareem Osman Fadl, Abdelrahman Hamza Abdelmoneim Hamza, Mahir Eissa Mohamed Eissa, Hadeel Idris Adam Osman, Hiba Ali Ibrahim Ali, Noha Abdalla Yousif Mohamed

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i230459

Background: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all aspects of life globally and locally in Sudan, including institutional and educational services. In Sudan, education is grounded by the traditional method of learning in a classroom (face-to-face lectures). The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 forced some universities and colleges to conduct online learning. This study aimed to assess the perception of health professional students in Sudan, including undergraduates and postgraduates, regarding the possible outcomes of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among both undergraduate and postgraduate health professional students in Sudan. A convenient sample collection method was utilized, from which data was collected online via a self-administered structured questionnaire composed of nineteen questions, which were then validated by a medical education expert. The input was assessed and the data was analyzed using a statistical package for social science (SPSS).

Results: Overall, 133 health professional students responded to the web questionnaire, of which 97 (73%) were undergraduates and 36 (27%) were postgraduates. Amongst the undergraduates, 58 (59.8%) expressed a positive perception while 39 (40.2%) expressed a negative perception. Whereas 24 (66.7%) of postgraduates had a positive perception, 12 (33.3%) of them expressed a negative perception regarding online learning in Sudan.

Conclusion: Postgraduate health professionals were more familiar with online learning and expressed a higher level of perception in comparison to the undergraduates. Furthermore, several students were already exposed to hybrid online learning during the current COVID-19 pandemic.  The participating students in this study stated several obstacles to the implementation of online learning in Sudan and appropriately managing them is vital for the successful implementation of this mode of learning.

Open Access Review Article

Health Effects caused by Noise - The Case of Africa: Evidence in Literature from the Past 25 Years

Francis A. Osei, Esther A. Effah

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i230452

This narrative review paper is centred on researches conducted in Africa from the past Twenty-Five (25) years which reveals the health effects caused by noise pollution. Noise pollution has become a global menace. The various areas of noise reception, the health effects reported, sources, noise and exposure levels identified are described. Consistencies and discrepancies among results of various researches are elaborated. Finally, the implications of findings and any new research fields spotted are spelt out.

Open Access Review Article

Pre-harvest Losses of Musa spp. and Food Security Situation of Households in Sub-Sahara Africa

K. T. Nkwain, E. C. Odiaka, A. A. Ikwuba, L. K. M. Fatty, A. T. Gam

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 28-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i230454

Musa spp. generally known as bananas and plantains are staples to many in Africa. However, pre-harvest losses of these crops for the past two decades are alarming. The paper reveals that pre-harvest losses of bananas and plantains since 2002 ranges from 20.7-100% in Sub-Sahara Africa with most countries recording 50% losses and above. The paper further categorised the causes of pre-harvest losses of Musa spp. into natural, agronomic, biotic and human-induced constraints. Among these categories, human-induced constraints are seen to cause the highest pre-harvest losses as they influence the occurrence of other constraints. Some of the primary natural and agronomic constraints are storm, drought, and irregular/mixed cropping and over dependent on sward suckers and rainfall respectively. Fusarium wilt, Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), banana bunchy top disease, black sigatoka and cigar-end rot are some of the biotic constraints reported in most producing countries in the region. Pests such as banana weevils, nematodes, mealy-bugs and white grubs are equally identified as potential causes of Musa pre-harvest losses while some human-induced constraints are farmer-grazier conflicts, weak extension system and poor inputs. The paper revealed that in Rwanda, pre-harvest losses of bananas led to an increase (14-64%) of the number of households who were unable to eat their preferred meal in all the months of the year while in Tanzania, the food situation of 53.8% of the households were reported to be very bad. Meanwhile in Cameroon, insufficient food was reported in 81% of the producing households in Boyo Division. It is therefore, concluded that in order to minimise pre-harvest losses and enhance the food security status of the producers and consumers in the region, proper propping, pruning, crop rotation and above all integrated pest and disease management techniques should be practiced while Musa research centres should be decentralising, extension delivery systems revisited and disease-free planting materials provided to the farmers.