Open Access Short communication
Globally, fewer cases of COVID-19 have been reported in children (age 0-17 years) compared with adults [1,2], The number and rate of cases in children have been steadily increasing since March 2020. The true incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is not known due to lack of widespread testing and the prioritization of testing for adults and those with severe illness. Hospitalization rates in children are significantly lower than hospitalization rates in adults with COVID-19, suggesting that children may have less severe illness from COVID-19 compared to adults [5,6].
Evidence suggests that compared to adults, children likely have similar viral loads in their nasopharynx,  similar secondary infections rates, and can spread the virus to others [8,9].
Due to community mitigation measures and school closures, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to and among children may have been reduced during the pandemic in the spring and early summer of 2020. This may explain the low incidence in children compared with adults.
Comparing trends in pediatric infections before and after the return to child care, in-person school, youth sports and other activities may enhance our understanding about infections in children.
Children infected with SARS-CoV-2 may have many of these non-specific symptoms, only have a few (such as only upper respiratory symptoms or only gastrointestinal symptoms), or may be asymptomatic. The most common symptoms in children are cough and/or fever [11-15]. A recent systematic review estimated that 16% of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection are asymptomatic,  but evidence suggests that as many as half of pediatric infections may be asymptomatic  The signs and symptoms of COVID-19 in children are similar to those of other infections and noninfectious processes, including influenza, streptococcal pharyngitis, and allergic rhinitis. The lack of specificity of signs or symptoms and the significant proportion of asymptomatic infections make symptom-based screening for identification of SARS-CoV-2 in children particularly challenging .
Open Access Original Research Article
Nose/Face masks are physical barriers to respiratory droplets that may enter through the nose and mouth to cause infections in the respiratory tract. The study was determined and assess the presence of Gram-negative bacteria in used home-made and surgical nose mask by residents of Akungba-Akoko Ondo State and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and resistant profile of the isolated bacteria to eight (8) different antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial analysis were performed using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Antimicrobial Susceptibility test of all identified isolates to antimicrobial agents were determined using the standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The Gram-negative bacteria that were detected from the used home-made and surgical nose mask in this study include: Haemophilus influenza, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. During this study, all the Gram-negative bacteria isolates were resistant to Ciproflox in both used home-made and surgical nose mask. All isolates were also resistant to Ampicilin, Augmentin, Septrin and Streptomycin. In this study, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated organism from used home-made nose mask, it was observed that Escherichia coli were resistant to Augmentin, Tarivid, Ciproflox, Gentamycin, and Reflaxine, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to Tarivid, Ciproflox, and Nalidixic acid between 20 mm and 24 mm zones of inhibition respectively. Haemophilus influenza, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were isolated organism from used surgical nose mask. It was observed that all isolated organisms from the used surgical nose/face mask were resistant to Augmentin and Gentamycin between 20 and 24 mm zones of inhibition respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from both used home-made and surgical nose/face mask and were found to be resistant to Streptomycin, Septrin, Ampicilin, and Gentamicin between 20 to 22 mm zones of inhibition respectively. Proteus mirabilis were isolated from used surgical nose/face mask, they were found to be resistant to Ciproflox at 21mm zones of inhibition. Haemophilus influenza were resistant to Ampicilin, Septrin, Streptomycin, and Augmentin at 23 mm zones of inhibition. Isolates from used both home-made and surgical nose/face mask were subjected to modified and synergized antibiotics, it was observed that the isolates from both used home-made and surgical nose mask were resistant to all modified and synergized antibiotics between 20 and 25 mm zones of inhibition respectively. The result of this study validates the potency of Gram negative bacteria isolated from used both home-made and surgical nose/face mask and the degree of invasion and evasiveness, thereby causing various degrees of infections and a false sense of protection against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Finding from this research recommends a stringent measures were needed to be implemented, to halt and combat this revenging situation especially in the new era of mutating SARS-CoV-2 Virus not only in Nigeria, worldwide at large.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: To examine the prevalence of skin tone dissatisfaction among Malaysian young adults and to explore the associations between social media addiction, social comparison, and skin tone satisfaction.
Study Design: Cross-sectional survey design.
Place and Duration of Study: Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia, between December 2019 to January 2020
Methodology: Around 414 university students have partaken in an online survey consisting of a demographic questionnaire, Skin Colour Satisfaction Scale (SCSS), Upwards/Downwards Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (UPACS/DACS) and Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS).
Results: Descriptive analysis shows that the prevalence of skin tone satisfaction among Malaysian young adults is on a moderate level (M = 5.791, SD = 1.630), and there is a significant difference in satisfaction level among those who never tried using skin lightening products versus those who have experience in using those products, t (410.808) = -3.850, p < .001. Multivariate analysis shows that skin tone satisfaction is significantly associated with upwards social comparison (β = -.45), but not with downwards social comparison and social media addiction. Multigroup invariance analysis showed that social media addiction significantly weakens the relationship between upwards social comparison and skin tone satisfaction but has no effect on the relationship between downwards comparison and skin tone satisfaction.
Conclusion: Malaysian young adults are moderately satisfied with their skin tone, and upwards comparison can significantly influence skin tone satisfaction. The implications of this study are discussed in light of recommendations for policymakers to control the marketing of harmful skin lightening products online.
Open Access Original Research Article
Borehole water is one of the major sources of potable water in most developing countries of the world. Therefore, it becomes imperative to evaluate the continuing portability of these sources of water to the populace. The present study was undertaken to appraise the water quality of selected boreholes in Owerri Metropolis using the water quality index (WQI) method. Samples were collected from five different locations under stringent protocols. The water samples were analyzed for selected physicochemical properties and compared with WHO permissible limits and American Public Health Association. Results showed that the assayed parameters were within WHO permissible limits except Turbidity in Locations 2, 3 and 4. Water quality index ranged from 24.91 to 70.06. This study revealed that the investigated borehole waters are mostly portable and can be consumed. Nonetheless, the sources identified to be of poor quality should be treated before consumption.
Open Access Review Article
Shareholders’ value is the most important goal and an integral part of the companies’ strategic decision-making process. When a corporate performs well and creates value for its shareholders, it benefits the whole economy. The past studies concluded that efficient decision making in the areas of capital investments and debt financing can ensure high financial performance and shareholders’ value creation. This paper thoroughly reviews the literature on impact of capital investment and debt financing decisions on shareholders’ value. Capital investment is a very important managerial decision because it increases company's economic profit. However, past studies have found that not every time the capital investment results in increasing the value as it may vary with the level of investment. Moreover, debt financing lowers the free cash flows due to the payment of fixed interest payments, thus lowering shareholders' return and value. Therefore, this paper recommends the need of further research to better understand the effect of capital investment and debt financing decisions on shareholders’ value.