Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Government Health System in Sri Lanka during Last Three Decades

K. A. N. K. Karunarathna, J. Sriranganesan

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i830415

Aims: Several aspects are associated with the health system. Development in each aspect in health sector is required parallel to the growth of the population of patients. This study was carried out with the intention of investigating the development in physical resources, human resources, and funds allocation for government health system in Sri Lanka.

Methodology: This study considered the development within the period from 1987 to 2019. Necessary data were collected from the annual reports of central bank of Sri Lanka. Data for physical resources, human resources, patients, and expenditures were gathered. Parallel developments of these aspects were analyzed by using descriptive and confirmatory techniques: Pearson’ correlation and canonical correlation. Apart from that some graphical techniques and summary measures were also used in the analysis.

Results: Number of both in-patients and out-patients has rapidly increased during this period, while expenditure on the health system also has exponentially grown. However, percentage of GDP allocated for health system has remained almost same. There can be seen a reasonable development in both human resources and physical resources.

Conclusion: Even though, health system has been developed to a greater extent, developments in some aspects are not parallel to the development in other aspects. However, further development is needed to meet the growing demand for health services due to increasing population of patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occupational Stress among Lecturers: The Case of Female Lecturers in University Education, Winneba

Veronica Esinam Eggley, Joshua-Luther Ndoye Upoalkpajor, Alfred Alunga Anovunga

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 20-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i830416

The purpose of this study was to explore occupational stress among female lecturers in University of Education, Winneba. Two research questions were framed to guide the study. A triangulatory mixed method approach of quantitative and qualitative methods were used in order to obtain a fuller picture on female lecturers’ stress with future recommendations grounded in the research. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Seventy-five respondents were selected using purposive sampling method using structured questionnaires and six were interviewed using semi-structured interview guide. The results revealed that the causes of stress among the female lecturers are abundant and wide-ranging extending from heavy workload, pressure from meeting deadlines, overlapping responsibilities, demands from career expectations, to working home at the expense of rest among others. Stress experienced by female lecturers affected their work as well as their home life. The study recommended amongst others that the university should reduce the workload of female lecturers by employing the services of more lecturers or Teaching Assistants and also female lecturers should be supported to manage stress through counselling and assertive training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumers’ Sustainable Choice between Gas and Electric Scooter

Daisy Lily M. Balanquit, Reann G. Asinas, Alyssa R. De Veyra

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 36-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i830417

Aims: To investigate consumers’ sustainable choice behavior between gas and electric scooters, as predicted by consumers’ felt responsibility for sustainability anchored on norm activation theory.

Study Design:  Quantitative research approach using cross-sectional online survey design.

Place and Duration of Study: The data came from faculty employees of a state university in the Philippines between August to September 2020.

Methodology: 109 responses from faculty employees were analyzed. Hypotheses were tested for regression using Jamovi.

Conclusion: This study added empirical evidence on the applicability of consumers’ felt responsibility for sustainability as a predictor of sustainable choice behavior and answered the call for more studies that would promote a better understanding of the concept of sustainable consumption. The findings provided important implications on how marketers and managers can promote pro-environmental products such as electric scooters and boost sustainable consumption among buyers in an identified community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of the Topography and Draining of the Site for the Benin City Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Station

S. O. Eteje, Okpeahior Akugbe Cyril

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 48-63
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i830418

The reconciliation of engineering designs that do not have survey information, that involve accurate configuration of the proposed constructions at their respective locations on-site requires first a topographic survey to obtain the perimeter survey plan, which in turn, shows the area, shape, perimeter and orientation of the site; spot heights plan showing the existing ground levels thereby used to decide on suitable gradients and determine appropriate finished ground surface, coordinates of the turning points of outlines of the proposed constructions and their respective elevations. For that reason, this study determines the topography and drains the site for the Benin City Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) station in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. A topographic survey was carried out to produce topographic plans. The accuracy of the survey was computed to determine its reliability. The perimeter survey plan was plotted using AutoCAD Civil 3D Land Desktop Companion 2009 to present the area, shape, perimeter and orientation of the site. The TIN method was used for the computation of the volume of earthworks. The existing and the finished ground surfaces, vector, as well as the flow direction plans, contour plans and the 3D surface maps were plotted using Surfer 11 to show graphically the existing and the proposed topography of the site. A network of drainages was established to drain the site. The study has shown that the site can be drained in two ways, into the moat behind it and existing drainage along Obakhavbaye.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Factors Contributing to Teacher Effectiveness in Senior High Schools in the Kassena Nankana West District

Matthew Kojo Namale, Amos Asamari Alale, Francis Asore Atingane, Joshua-Luther Ndoye Upoalkpajor

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 64-70
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i830419

The study investigated the factors contributing to teacher effectiveness in senior high schools in the Kassena Nankana West District. A descriptive survey design with a sample of 100 teachers was used for the study. A self-designed questionnaire was used for the data collection. Means and standard deviations and independent samples t-test were the statistical tools used in the study. The objectives of the study were to find how headmaster supervision contributes to teacher effectiveness; find students’ attitude that contribute to teacher effectiveness; how community participation contribute to teacher effectiveness. Means and standard deviations and the independent samples t-test were the statistical tools used in the study. The findings of the study were showed that; headmasters involved teachers in decision making in schools, students’ participation in classroom work was appreciable, and communities gave teachers some fringe benefits. It was recommended that headmaster supervision should be strengthened since involving teachers in decision making in school brings about teacher effectiveness. Again teachers should relate and encourage students to participate in classroom work since that contribute to teacher effectiveness. It was concluded that headmaster supervision is very important since that contribute to teacher effectiveness in school.