Open Access Short Research Article

In the Absence of Effective Malaria Parasite Sentinel System- a Cross-Sectional Study to Assess Prevalence of Plasmodium spp Infection and Malaria among Patients at Federal Medical Centre Birnin-Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Olaosebikan Victor O., Olatunji Alabi, Hussaini Kabiru, Ojo A. Abiodun

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 71-76
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i430392

Aim: This research assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium Spp infection and malaria among patients at Federal Medical Centre Birnin-Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Methodology: The study utilized a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive data collected from January to December, 2018 to determine the prevalence of malaria parasite infection and prevalent Plasmodium spp infection among different age groups and sexes among patients attending Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi. We analysed secondary data of hospital records of 5,645 feverish patients attending general out patients’ department and medical laboratory department at the study area. Blood samples from the patients were collected and examined using thin and thick-blood smear slides technique for the presence or absence of parasites by trained microscopists.

Results: The prevalence of malaria parasite in the study area was 17.1%. P. falciparum was the most prevalent species of malaria parasite (99.69%) among the positive cases in the study area, while P. malariae was identified in 3 of the positive slides representing 0.31% case. Malaria positivity was highest (52.49%) among children aged 0-10years. Test of association between malaria positivity and patients’ age was statistically significant (p<0.05). Among patients who tested positive to malaria parasite, more than half (53.37%) of them were female.

Conclusion: Presence of Plasmodium malariae may be indicative of trans-border transmission of the disease due to the proximity of the study area to international border and thus calls for effective malaria parasite surveillance system and further inter boarder research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Chemical Composition of Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaf Ethyl Acetate Fraction

E. S. Asiwe, C. U. Igwe, V. A. Onwuliri, K. M. E. Iheanacho, J. N. Iheanacho

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 15-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i430387

Aims: To characterize the chemical composition of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf ethyl acetate fraction.

Methodology: Quantitative phytochemical composition was assessed using gas chromatography fitted with flame ionization detector (GC-FID), while chemical characterization was via gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis. The mass spectra peaks were matched with those found in the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) spectral database.

Results: Results revealed a rich presence of proanthocyanin, rutin, quinine, flavan-3-ol, anthocyanin, lunamarin, sapogenin, phenol, flavonones, steroids, epicatechin, kaempferol, phytate, oxalate, resveratol, catechin, flavones, tannin, ribalinidine, naringin, and spartein in varying proportion in B. pinnatum leaves ethylacetate fractions. GC-MS analysis of the fractions revealed the presence of at least 50 constituents. The major constituents were Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (24.88%), 10,13-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (29.69%), Tetracosanoic acid, methyl ester (7.84%), Methyl stearate (6.97%), cis-Methyl 11-eicosenoate (6.26%), Methyl 18-methylnonadecanoate (4.99%), Docosanoic acid, methyl ester (3.71%) and  4,7-Methano-1H-indene, octahydro- (2.43%).

Conclusion: This rich array of chemical compounds presents B. pinnatum leaves as an important source of potential lead compounds with biological and pharmacological benefits and hence a potential candidate for drug discovery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Driver Compliance in Daytime Headlights Zones in the U.S

Wayne D. Cottrell

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i430388

Aims: Observe driver compliance with daytime headlights requirements along two-lane highways in California and Arizona.  Determine overall compliance rates, while identifying any statistical differences between highways.

Study Design: Travel along highways having daytime headlight use requirements during daylight hours, recording ambient conditions and compliance.  Distinguish between cars, large commercial trucks, and motorcycles, and between manual (low-beam) and automated (very low-beam) headlights.  Add supportive information from synergistic research.

Place and Duration of Study: California State Routes 4, 18, 74, 247, and U.S. Highway 95 in Arizona, during September 2010, and June and July 2015, over seven data collection days during the summer, and one on the first day of autumn.

Methodology: Calculate average driver headlight compliance rates and deviations to a 95% level of confidence.  Assume that compliance follows a normal probability distribution pattern.

Results: A total of 758 motor vehicles were observed.  Removing the 104 vehicles observed on a “cloudy” highway, 266 of the 654 drivers were using their headlights (40.7% ± 3.6% compliance).  There was no difference between the proportions of compliant drivers on the six highways (95% level of confidence).  A total of 66 of 104 drivers used their headlights under cloudy conditions (63.5% ± 9.6% compliance).  A Facebook survey of 24 respondents found that 20% of drivers were unaware of daytime headlights zones (DHZs), and an additional 13% were deliberately noncompliant.  Interviews of two California Highway Patrol officers revealed that citations for noncompliance were “not popular” (among the officers), and that there was some skepticism as to the effectiveness of the requirement.

Conclusions: Further observation is needed under cloudy skies to develop a more precise proportion of compliance.  The low compliance suggests that the effectiveness of DHZs cannot be truly assessed.  Compliance might be improved with enhanced driver education, as to their existence and purpose, less reluctant enforcement, a revised headlight sign design, and more frequent signing.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Degree of the Graduate Students' usage of the Internet in Scientific Research from their Perspectives at the Jordanian Universities

Alqudah, Khalid, H. Omush, Rana

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 35-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i430389

This study aimed at identifying the degree of graduate students' usage of the internet in scientific research from their perspectives at the Jordanian universities. The researchers used the survey method and developed the instrument of the study, a questionnaire consisted of (40) items. Its validity and reliability were confirmed. The questionnaire was distributed to the sample which consisted of (440) students from Jordanian universities. The findings revealed that students' usage of the internet in scientific research and in identifying statement of the problem was at a medium degree; and their usage of the internet was high in preparing the chapter of the literature review and previous studies and in publishing scientific research papers, too and low in conducting team research. The results indicated that there are statistical significant differences attributed to gender on the four domains in favor of the females. No statistical significant differences were indicated attributed to the type of the college (scientific, literary) on the four domains of the instrument. The results also indicated that there are significant statistical differences attributed to the graduate program level in favor of the doctoral students.. The conclusion emphasized the necessity to hold training courses for the graduate students in the usage of the internet and data bases in scientific research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Safety Culture on Employee Safety Motivation and Error Behaviour in Selected Petroleum Industries in Niger-Delta

Akaninyene Edet Ekong, John N. Ugbebor, Bara Kabaka. Brown

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 49-62
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i430390

The study assessed the influence of safety culture on employee safety motivation and error behaviour in selected petroleum industries in the Niger-delta. Perceived process safety culture has significant impact on employees’ safety motivation and employee error behaviours in petroleum industries were the hypothesis tested for the study. Numerous empirical examinations states process safety culture failure as largely responsible for catastrophic occurrences in oil and gas platforms which has resulted in loss of lives, properties and caused diverse dangers to the environment. The study methodology is descriptive statistics utilising regression analysis. The field production / process plant operations workers of the Local/National and International Oil Companies were considered. The Population of the study: includes workers of the processing unit of ExxonMobil, Total Exploration & Production, Shell Petroleum Development Company, Agip Oil Company, Savannah Energy Public Limited Company (PLC), Network Exploration & Production, Frontier Oil, Aieteo Eastern Exploration & Production Company, Universal Energy Resources Ltd and Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). Population consist of one thousand workers of the processing unit of ten companies with a proportion of five selected International Oil Companies (IOCs) and five Local Oil Companies (LOCs) selected by convenience sample techniques with only 816 valid responses. The sampling technique was purposive, convenience and quota sampling. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM 20 was the software utilised for the analysis. The primary source of data collection was questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of Three (3) Sections and contains Thirty-seven (37) questions including the Socio-demographic data. Cronbach alpha coefficient from the reliability test carried out on the pre-test data showed an overall outcome of 0.872, which is considered very strong since and not far from 1.0. The study reveals that the Perceived process safety culture has no significant impact on employees’ safety motivation. Also, perceived process safety culture has a significant impact on employee error behaviours in petroleum industries. The study recommended that organisations should continue performing activities that keeps employees personally motivated. While employees must find ways to motivate themselves towards safety. Employee safety trainings should be organised to improve safety culture and avoid error behaviour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Mental Health Status of the Newly Recruited Ayurvedic Medical Practitioners in Sri Lanka

B. L. Edirisinghe, W. M. S. S. K. Kulathunga

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 63-70
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i430391

Mental and behavioral disorders are the 13% of the global burden of diseases. Mental health problems are common among children and young people estimated 13.4% affected by any metal disorders.(3) Today mental health problems are emerging more strongly as a public health problems presenting increase of the prevalence of substance and alcohol abuse and the world‘s highest suicide rates. Objective of this survey is study was to identify the mental health status of the newly recruited Ayurvedic medical Practitioners. Descriptive cross sectional survey study was carried out among total population of newly recruited Ayurvedic Practitioners by using self-administered questionnaire. Study conducted at the Institute of Indigenous Medicine. Data collection was carried out by the principal investigator during the period of their training. The response rate was 85.7% (107). The female doctors represented the majority of the participants measured 70.15 (75). Age ranged from 25-45years with mean of 33.1 (SD 2.30). Findings from the study revealed 100 (93.5%) of the respondents are within age range 31-40 yrs. The marital status of the respondents were 82.2% (88) of them are married, unmarried 15.9% (17) and widower 1.9%(2). 95.3% (102) of the respondents are Buddhists and 4.7% (5) are Christians. Also study indicates those 46.7% (50) respondents from semi urban, 42.1% (45) from urban and 11.2% (12) from rural. Nutritional status of the respondents, 56.1% (60) of them are with normal weight, 5.6%(6) of them were underweight and 38.3% (41) overweight. The majority of the respondents 90.7% (97) are with Normal mental health. But 9.3% of the respondents were presented with mild impairment.

Open Access Review Article

Positive Health Outcome is Directly Proportional to the Community Participation

Sadaf Anwar, Farah Ahmad

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i430385

Community participation has been a crucial part of health agenda. It has captured the attention and has especially gained its acceptance by health policy makers’ since Alma Ata Conference. Declaration of 1978 which had a significant impact on public health.

This review article comprised the studies and focused on the development of community participation and creating awareness among. And eventually bridge them with the healthcare service providers which will ease the burden from the healthcare setups and help solve the deeply rooted problems.

Information regarding community approaches and participation were retrieved through Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline and other authentic search engines.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Smartphones on Physical and Psychosocial Well-being of Children and Adolescent

Sadaf Anwar, Rabeeya Saeed, Syed Hasan Danish, Farah Azhar

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 6-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2021/v15i430386

Since the last two decades, the risk factor of various diseases has spiked up among the children and adolescents, which has an immediate alliance to the increased use of smartphones. Previously children used to lag behind their adults for possession of smartphones, but with ease of accessibility in succeeding years, smartphone ownership among teens has jumped to 72% with unnecessary prolonged screen time durations.

The objective of this literature review was to highlight and refresh the slow poisoning effects of the smartphones in our younger generation due to its compelling traits which make them use it for a long time carelessly.