Open Access Original Research Article

Urban Growth Influence on Land Cover Dynamics across Obio/Akpor Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Mark Ogoro, Eze Allen Uche, Dollah Osademe Chukwudi

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v13i430312

The study examined urban growth and land cover dynamics across Obio/Akpor, Local Government Area Rivers State. Landsat images were derived for the period of 1986 which was regarded as the base year, 2010 and 2018. The images were imported and analyzed using the spatial analysis tools in the ArcGIS environment to determine the extent of growth induced by change in features (water bodies, swamp forest, other forest, and Anthropogenic/built-up) coverage across the region. Findings revealed that there was a continuous decrease in the areas covered by water bodies, swamp forest, and forest between the periods of 1986 through 2010. It also revealed an increase in anthropogenic activities during the same periods of 1986 through 2018. As at 2018, as compared to 1986 which serves as the base year, there was a noticeable decrease in land area covered by water, in the tune of 13.946 sq km in 2018 as against 20.433 sq km in 1986 amounting to 68 percent decrease in surface covered by water bodies. Also, as at 2018, as compared to 1986 there is a noticeable decrease in the surface covered by swamp and other forest types in the tune of 18.102 and 99.693 sq km  respectively as compared to 4.,986 and 17.498 sq km of surface cover respectively. On the other hand anthropogenic altered surfaces had a level of increase in the area covered by Anthropogenic/built-up developmental activities as at 2018 amounting to a tune of 14.399 sq km  of surface area altered by anthropogenic activities as at 2018 as compared to 38.267 sq km  of surface cover altered by human activities as at 1986 which when compared gave an increase in area covered by anthropogenic activities indicating an increase of over 100 percent between the base year of 1986 through 2018.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Building Design Team Communication: Implications for Project Success in Nigeria

Ayodele Emmanuel Ikudayisi, Akugbe Collins Oviasogie

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v13i430313

Within building design team, communication has increasingly become multifaceted. Yet, despite the fast increasing communication modes and the introduction of design tools, most projects are still delivered below expectations. This study investigated the implication of design team’s communication on project success using a mixed research method (Quantitative and Qualitative approaches). Eighteen completed projects were randomly selected from five public organizations in Ibadan, Nigeria. Participants were drawn from the design professionals and client representative involved in each of the project (N=102). The quantitative data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis while qualitative data from semi-structured interviews were subjected to content analysis. Adequate participation of team members in meetings, provision of adequate information and appropriate use of design tools emerged as the key communication qualities which affect the project success. Based on these findings, recommendations were made towards improving design team effectiveness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring Urban Dietary Pattern in Nigerian Households: A Case for Nutrient Adequacy

Adesola Adebola, Ikudayisi

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 24-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v13i430315

Aims: To identify dietary patterns of urban households in Southwest, Nigeria and explore their links with nutrients adequacy.

Study Design: Cross sectional household-level data from two urban locations selected through a multistage random sampling procedure in southwest Nigeria was employed.

Place and Duration of Study: Urban households were sampled in South west zone of Nigeria between October to November, 2017.

Methodology: Socio/demographics were documented using a descriptive analysis. The pattern of food subgroups was determined econometrically using the factor analysis, while the test for differences was examined using Mann Whitney U.

Results: Using factor analysis, five distinct dietary patterns emerged named as vitamin A, modern, protein, roots, and cereals patterns with 50. 7% variance contribution rate. The vitamin A rich food dietary pattern explained 12.8 % of the total variance and the pitch in diet quality of this factor was explained mostly by dark leafy vegetables and fruits. The fourth and fifth factors which accounted for 9.2% and 7.5% of total variance, respectively characterised by high intakes of roots/tubers (0.69), plantain (0.57) and cereals (0.79) are food rich in dietary energy. Consumption frequency revealed that a higher intake of vitamin A foods was associated with LUA, while HUA had more intake of spices (46.3%), oil (44.5%) and beef products (41.3%). Both urban locations had a lower intake of iron rich foods (dairy, poultry and organ meat) which suggest likely risk of heme iron deficiency. Dietary energy intake in form of cereals (52.3%) was higher in HUA with tubers (14.6%) in LUA. The test of difference across the two locations revealed significant disparities in the observed dietary pattern with respect to vitamin A food, beef meat, spices and poultry at 5% level.

Conclusions: Urban disparity in dietary pattern is evidenced in this paper. However, the different dietary pattern across urban locations were associated with some nutritional outcomes. Although, both dietary patterns had healthful elements of the diets, low consumption of iron rich foods was observed. Programmes focusing on the prevention of diet-related chronic diseases in this population should balance the identified pattern of consumption with iron rich foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis E Virus among Animal Handlers and Non-Animal Handlers in Osun State, Nigeria

I. R. Gidado, F. A. Osundare, I. O. Okonko, O. O. Opaleye

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 35-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v13i430316

Aim: Increase in the epidemiological information is important for effective control of hepatitis E virus (HEV). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HEV among butchers, pig handlers and non-animal handlers in Osun State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Molecular Biology Laboratory, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Isale Osun, Osogbo, Nigeria, between June 2015 and July 2019.

Methods: A total of 180 blood samples were obtained and screened for HEV from cohorts of 90 animal handlers (69 butchers and 21 pig handlers) and 90 non-animal handlers. Questionnaires on HEV were administered to obtain a demographic characteristic of the participants. Anti-hepatitis E viruses were also screened using HEV ELISA kit.

Results: Results showed an overall prevalence of HEV to be 21.7%. The rate of anti-HEV IgG/IgM antibodies was higher among butchers (27.5%), followed by non-animal handlers (18.9%) and was least among the pig handlers (14.3%) while the two IgM positive persons were butchers and non-animal handlers. However, 39(21.7%) of the 180 samples were positive for either anti-HEV IgG antibodies (37/180, 20.6%) or anti-HEV IgM (2/180, 1.1%). Also, the rate of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was higher among butchers (26.1%), followed by non-animal handlers (17.8%) and the pig handlers (14.3%) had the least. The two IgM positive persons were butchers (1.4%), non-animal handlers (1.1%) and pig handlers had a zero prevalence. There was no statistical significance in the prevalence of HEV IgG and HEV IgM in animal handlers as compared to non-animal handlers (P > 0.05). One (1.4%) of the butchers and 1 (1.1%) of non-animal handlers showed evidence of recent HEV infection by being positive to HEV IgM. Sources of drinking water were the only HEV predisposition factor for HEV (P =0.023).

Conclusion: This study reported an acute HEV infection in a butcher and a non-animal handler in Osun State, Nigeria. No prevalence rates of acute HEV infection was observed among pig handlers in Osun State, Nigeria. The study also showed a low prevalence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies among these study populations. Proper hygiene is recommended for further reduction in HEV transmission in Nigeria.

Aim: Increase in the epidemiological information is important for effective control of hepatitis E virus (HEV). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HEV among butchers, pig handlers and non-animal handlers in Osun State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Molecular Biology Laboratory, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Isale Osun, Osogbo, Nigeria, between June 2015 and July 2019.

Methods: A total of 180 blood samples were obtained and screened for HEV from cohorts of 90 animal handlers (69 butchers and 21 pig handlers) and 90 non-animal handlers. Questionnaires on HEV were administered to obtain a demographic characteristic of the participants. Anti-hepatitis E viruses were also screened using HEV ELISA kit.

Results: Results showed an overall prevalence of HEV to be 21.7%. The rate of anti-HEV IgG/IgM antibodies was higher among butchers (27.5%), followed by non-animal handlers (18.9%) and was least among the pig handlers (14.3%) while the two IgM positive persons were butchers and non-animal handlers. However, 39(21.7%) of the 180 samples were positive for either anti-HEV IgG antibodies (37/180, 20.6%) or anti-HEV IgM (2/180, 1.1%). Also, the rate of anti-HEV IgG antibodies was higher among butchers (26.1%), followed by non-animal handlers (17.8%) and the pig handlers (14.3%) had the least. The two IgM positive persons were butchers (1.4%), non-animal handlers (1.1%) and pig handlers had a zero prevalence. There was no statistical significance in the prevalence of HEV IgG and HEV IgM in animal handlers as compared to non-animal handlers (P > 0.05). One (1.4%) of the butchers and 1 (1.1%) of non-animal handlers showed evidence of recent HEV infection by being positive to HEV IgM. Sources of drinking water were the only HEV predisposition factor for HEV (P =0.023).

Conclusion: This study reported an acute HEV infection in a butcher and a non-animal handler in Osun State, Nigeria. No prevalence rates of acute HEV infection was observed among pig handlers in Osun State, Nigeria. The study also showed a low prevalence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies among these study populations. Proper hygiene is recommended for further reduction in HEV transmission in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Nagaraja Guliya; A Sri Lankan Traditional Formula Used in Poisons of Animal Origin (Jangama Visha)

J. H. K. Eshwara, R. D. H. Kulathunga, E. D. T. P. Gunarathna

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 49-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v13i430317

Sri Lanka has unique heritage of own medical system handed down from generation to another over a period of 3,000 years.  Native medical practitioners in different disciplines are inherited within a family tradition and their treatments are still effective and accepted by the Sri Lankan community.  Nagaraja Guliya is one of traditional preparations prescribed as internal or external medicaments by the traditional physicians in the southern province in Sri Lanka since ten decades for poisons of animal origin. The study has been focused to standardize the herbo mineral formula in respect of quality, safety and analyze the potential of Nagaraja Guliya. The formulation consists of the eight herbo mineral ingredients; Aconitum ferox, Zingiber officinale, Myristica fragrans, Syzygium aromaticum, Mercury, Arsenic trisulfide, Copper sulphate and Luffa cylindrica. Authentication of the ingredients was carried out at Bandaranayaka Memorial Ayurveda Research Institute, Nawinna, Sri Lanka. Data has been gathered from Sri Lankan traditional manuscripts, Ayurveda authentic texts and different scientific journals. The results revealed that the Nagaraja Guliya contains secondary plant metabolites like Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponin and Phenols. The pH of the formulation was found to be 5.28 and is in acceptable range for oral administration and external application. Further, heavy metal contents of Mercury and Arsenic in the preparation was not reached to the harmful level to the human body. In Ayurveda view point; pharmacodynamic properties of the formula showed that maximum number of ingredients consist of Katu Rasa (pungent taste) Laghu Guna (Light property), Ushna Veerya (Hot in potency) and Katu vipaka with properties of pacification of Kapha and Vata dosha. Kushtagna, Vedanastapana, Raktashodaka, Shotahara and Vishahara. Hence, future studies should be planned to evaluate the existing data on traditional use of Nagaraja Guliya, along with experimental and clinical trials.