Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Protein Quality of Complementary Food Made from Maize (Zea mays) Supplemented with Crayfish (Euastacus spp) and Carrot (Daucus carota) Using Albino Rats

N. N. Umerah, N. M. Oly- Alawuba, A. I. Asouzu, P. N. Ani, C. G. U. Oluah, C. O. Ezike

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v12i330287

Background: Assessment of protein quality is aimed at determining the ability of a protein to meet up with the needs for maintenance, growth, pregnancy and lactation.

Objective: To evaluate the protein quality of complementary food made from local food blends using albino rats.

Methods: Maize, carrot, crayfish, milk and other ingredients were purchased, processed and used for the study. The maize, crayfish and carrot flours were blended in the ratio of 100:0:0, 70:25:5, 70:20:10, 70:15:15, 70:10:20 and 70:5:25 respectively. The six diets provided 10% protein for six groups of rats. The diets were fed to forty (40) weanling albino rats in a 21-day growth period and 7-days Nitrogen balance study. Milk was used as control and Nitrogen free diet was used for the estimation of endogenous nitrogen. The result generated were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 22.

Results: The result showed that over 70% of the nitrogen consumed by all the five groups of rats fed the mixed diets were absorbed and retained. Among the test diet groups, the 70:20:10 diet had the highest absorbed nitrogen (2.10 g), retained nitrogen (2.00 g), biological value (80%) and net protein utilization (77%) which was significantly different from the other groups. The 70:20:10 diet had the highest Total digestibility (94%), highest food intake (230g), weight gain (52.10%) and PER (2.7) that were comparable with the reference protein (milk) at (p>0.05). The mineral metabolism of all the rats fed the test diets were absorbed and retained.

Conclusion: The study revealed that complementary food of high protein quality and nutrient dense can be produced from blends of maize, carrot and crayfish. All the complementary food made from blends of maize, carrot and crayfish blend were of higher nutrient quality than the popular homemade complementary food made of maize alone. It is imperative that blends of local foods stuffs should be used as complementary food instead of only cereal in order to improve the nutritional status of a growing child and also curb prevalence of protein energy malnutrition that is common among under five.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sub-microstructures of Nephrite from Five Sources Based on Multispectral Imaging and Effect Enhancement

Dian Chen, Ming Yu, Wugan Luo, Changsui Wang

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v12i330288

Some collectors and connoisseurs have found that the nephrite from different sources possess different sub-microstructures inside the body, which could become a quite convenient and effective basis for determining provenance. The sub-microstructure of nephrite can be observed by the naked eye under irradiated by strong light. However, the images of original submicrostructure of nephrite were recorded by use of multispectral imaging in our previous work, but the visual effect is not satisfied. Here, the main features of different sub-microstructures will present more distinct by appropriately subtracting the shining strength and then the average filtering is adopted to promote the resolution of sub-microstructure imaging as well as to reduce some image noises. The sub-microstructure images of nephrite from five most common sources have typical inherent characteristics respectively, which are qualified to set up a demonstration for identifying provenances. Furthermore, the shape, size, distribution and name for these different sub-microstructures have been summarized and they will become the basis for future research on the provenance of nephrite including the ancient jade.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biscuit Making Potentials of Cooking Banana and Yellow Maize Flour Blends

N. N. Umerah, A. I. Asouzu, N. M. Oly- Alawuba

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 25-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v12i330289

The study was carried out to determine the biscuit making potentials of cooking banana and yellow maize flour blends. Cooking banana and yellow maize were processed and milled into flour then blended for composite biscuit production. The samples were coded as follows; A=100:0, B=90:10, C= 80:20, D=70:30, E=60:40 and F=0:100 of maize and cooking banana respectively. All the samples were subjected to laboratory analysis for proximate and minerals using standard methods. Sensory properties of the biscuit were also evaluated by 20 panelist. Data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS and the result recorded as mean ± standard deviation while the mean was separated using Duncan New Multiple Range (P<0.05). The results were 0.50 to 120.75% protein, 4.08 to 5.10% moisture, 3.45 to 7.15% fat, 2.13 to 3.68% fibre and 77.81 to 82.91% carbohydrate. The minerals were 0.50 to 120.75 mg Ca, 4.10 to 12.75 mg Fe, 124.66 to 176.10 mg Mg, 10.32 to 24.75 mg Na, 1.45 to 2.13 mg Zn and 50. 22 to 116.33 mg P. There was significant different (P≤0.05) in texture, colour, appearance, flavor and overall acceptability of biscuits made from the composite flour. The study has revealed that biscuits of high nutrient dense and acceptable organoleptic properties could be produced from yellow maize and cooking banana composite flour blends. The use of yellow maize and cooking banana flour in biscuits preparation resulted in significant improvement in the nutrient content of the composite biscuits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Natural Oil Doped PVA Membrane

X. S. Gama

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 32-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v12i330290

In deciding the workable layout of any network an appropriate technology plays a major role and can improve accuracy and flexibility efficiently, if chosen and implemented in best possible way. The growth in the infrared applications has created a need for knowledge of its optical characteristics in the spectral region for the purpose of designing. Very little work is previously reported in natural oil doped PVA membranes. In this work, a simple attempt is made synthesize and characterize the wintergreen oil and basil oil doped PVA membranes. In investigation, basil oil and wintergreen oil doped PVA membranes were prepared and is made to characterize. The resulting membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXAD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC).

Open Access Review Article

Leader-member Exchange and Transformational Leadership Style: A Prediction to Thriving at Work

O. Joe-Akunne, Chiamaka, E. Iloke Stephen, I. Nnaebue, Collins

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 37-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v12i330291

The world’s economic and organizational growth is increasingly becoming difficult as a result of harsh leadership styles and highhandedness in imprinting certain policies and rules into the organization. Going by this trend, this study explored leader-member exchange and transformational leadership style: a prediction to thriving at work among employees of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra, Nigeria. The sample population of the study comprised of 102 non-teaching staff of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra, Nigeria. Thirty-two (32) males and sixty-eight (68) females with age range of 23 to 56 years with a mean age of 32.5 who were selected through simple random sampling. Instruments used for data collection were leader-member exchange scale, transformational leadership inventory and thriving scale. In the method section, predictive design was adopted and hierarchical regression statistics was used to analyze the predictive strength of the variables. Three hypotheses guided the study and the results indicated that leader member exchange and transformational leadership style independently predicted thriving at work at B=.80 and .34, p<.05 respectively. Also, leader member exchange and transformational leadership style jointly predicted thriving at work at B= .62 and B=.34, p <.05 respectively. The findings from this study imply that leader member exchange and transformational leadership style can greatly impact thriving at work and this would in turn lead to greater work commitment and organizational effectiveness among public sector employees. It was recommended that organizations put to use transformational leadership styles and as well grant leaders the opportunity to share ideas and opinions.