Open Access Method Article

A Pathway to Optimise Performing an Emergency Tracheostomy in Patients Failing Endotracheal Intubation

Wendy Smith, Hemanth Kowdley Subrahmanyam, Phil Watts, James Sheldon

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 33-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v10i330244

Emergency tracheostomy is a timely life saving procedure bringing to the fore the expert skills of the difficult airway team comprising the otolaryngologist, anaesthesiologist and theatre team or emergency department staff. Adequate advanced planning has to be adopted in these situations for achieving a good outcome. We present our optimal pathway practiced within our team to  achieve successful outcomes during emergency tracheostomies starting from planning to the use of pressure bag in cases of failed intubations. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancing and Conservation of Ecosystem through Philatelic Education in Europe: Think Green Concept (III) - FDCs Research Study

Bogdan Cioruța, Alexandru Leonard Pop, Mirela Coman

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v10i330241

EUROPA stamps are special stamps issued by European postal administrations and bears the official EUROPA logo, a PostEurop registered trademark under the aegis of PostEurop in which Europe is the central theme. EUROPA stamps underlines cooperation in the posts domain, taking into account promotion of thematic philately. They also build awareness of the common roots, culture and history of Europe and its common goals. As such, EUROPA stamps are among the most collected and most popular stamps in the world.

Each year, PostEurop's Stamps & Philately Working Group selects the EUROPA stamp theme. Think green! was the 2016 theme and, also, the one on which we decided to focus our attention.

In this paper we propose an insight into the actual history of Europe preoccupations for environmental protection and thematic philately, and bring into limelight the significant concerns in promoting ecological educational via thematic issues (Think green! stamps).

The main objective, for the present work and for the next that will follow, is to identify, index and describe the first day covers (FDCs) issued in European countries, starting with Åland Islands postal administration issues and ending with ones from Isle of Man.

Although the working method was the usual one, consisting of consulting databases and specialized catalogs and other documentation resources, addressed in numerous other studies that characterize our philatelic side, the results of the study did not cease to surprise us. The pieces that we managed to identify come to show us that, apart from the state discrepancies and the communication dysfunctions that exist between the different postal administrations of the world, a common issue (such as  the Think green! theme in this case) can be more than a good cultural ambassador. Of course, when we refer to the FDCs as a good ambassador, with an undeniable background in promoting the culture and values of a nation, we do not exaggerate in any form. The correspondence from that time, as well as the pieces themselves, as part of a philatelic collection, have by themselves a special significance, capturing the will for better, for the truth and for the beautiful.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Three Species of Mollusks (Egeria radiata, Limicolaria flammea and Viviparus contectus) from Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

I. Felagha, M. O. Monanu, B. A. Amadi

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 21-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v10i330242

Heavy metals pose a threat to human health and their presence in specific matrices is anthropogenic. The work focuses on the penetration of the food chain through the ingestion of mollusk proteins. This study evaluated the composition of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in three species of mollusks (Limicolaria flammea, Viviparus contectus, Egeria radiata) from Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria and the health risk associated with their consumption. Heavy metals concentration was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Health risk associated with consumption of the samples were assessed by Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Carcinogenic Risk (CR). EDI, THQ and CR were done by calculation following standards. Heavy metals concentration range in the samples were: Cd (0.289±0.00 mg/kg - 0.667±0.00 mg/kg), Mn (0.816±0.00 mg/kg - 0.934±0.00 mg/kg), Pb (0.082±0.00 mg/kg - 0.092±0.00 mg/kg) and Zn (4.114±0.00 mg/kg - 8.534±0.00 mg/kg); Cr was not detected in neither of the samples.  EDI of heavy metals through consumption of these samples were within acceptable limits for all heavy metals detected. THQ ranges were as follows: Cd (0.4949-1.1420), Mn (0.000017-0.000019), Pb (0.0401 - 0.0450) and Zn (0.0016 - 0.0066).  THQ values indicate that there is no human risk concern of risk for humans except Cd (in E. radiata). CR values for Cd were as follows: L. flammea (3.8×10-3), E. radiata (4.34×10-4) and V. contectus (1.88×10-4). CR values were within acceptable limits with the exception of Cd in L. flammea. The present study shows that the samples contained detectable levels of heavy metals however their consumption do not pose any form of health risk with the except for Cd in L. flammea, hence the carcinogenic role of L. flammea stands out for its high content of Cd.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Seasonal Variances in Descriptive Time Series Analysis

Kelechukwu C. N. Dozie

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v10i330245

This study presents the Buys-Ballot estimation procedure of row and seasonal variances in time series decomposition when trend component of time series is linear. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to obtain the Buys-Ballot estimates of row and seasonal variances for the mixed model. The method adopted in this study is Buys-Ballot procedure developed for choice of appropriate model for decomposition of any study series. The statistical software (MINITAB 17.0 version) is also adopted in this study. Results of the Buys-Ballot estimates for mixed model  indicate that, the row variance is a function of trend parameters and seasonal component of the original series. It is for column variance, a constant multiple of the square of the seasonal component.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Dynamics of Soil Erosion and Conservation Efforts in Ethiopia

Yibeltal Yihunie

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 27-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2020/v10i330243

This paper was aimed to review the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil erosion and conservation efforts being practiced in Ethiopia. In the country, there is highly fluctuating dynamics of soil erosion and its loss rate is large as per the stated international standards. Even if the efforts to conserve soil and water in the country are affected by different factors like agro ecology and the choice of conservation measures, it was practiced since 1970s. Apart from the government’s effort as well as the contribution of different non-governmental organizations in increasing the awareness and understanding towards the impacts of soil erosion, the land tenure system, the existence of poor technology, lack of finance, limited technical support and limited participation of the local community are some of the challenges in Ethiopia restricting the effectiveness of conservation efforts. In addition, the research activities done regarding soil and water conservation in the country are not following integrated and participatory approach. Thus, this makes the efforts regarding research and finding out the best approach for sustainable soil and water conservation practices inefficient. Therefore, promoting integrated and participatory approach as well as linking with income generating business like carbon trading through climate change mitigation is the best options for the expansion and sustainability of soil and water conservation measures in Ethiopia.