Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in Leaf Constituents and Biochemical Indices of Rats given Psidium guajava from Two Different Areas

Grace Ekpo, Adindu Eze, Amadi Benjamin, Odey Michael, Ogar Ishade Sunday, Dasimeokuna Princewill

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v7i330177

Variation in leaf (heavy metal) constituents and biochemical indices of rats given leaf samples of Psidium guajava from two different areas were evaluated. Results obtained for heavy metal constituents the leaf samples showed the presence of mercury (0.14±0.01 mg/100 g), lead (2.90±0.10 mg/100 g), cadmium (0.05±0.01 mg/100 g), copper (5.01±0.17 mg/100 g), chromium (0.40±0.01 mg/100 g), and cobalt (5.64±0.64 mg/100 g) in P. guajava leaf sample from crude oil polluted area. Only copper (0.80±0.20 mg/100 g) was observed in P. guajava leaf sample from non-crude oil polluted area. The biochemical studies on the leaf samples were carried out using standard methods. Thirty-six rats were distributed in six subgroups with six rats each, under three main groups (I-III). Three of the subgroups were placed on P. guajava leaves from crude oil polluted area (designated Ia, IIa and IIIa) while the other three subgroups were placed on P. guajava leaves from non-crude oil polluted area (designated Ib, IIb and IIIb). The haematological parameters of rats placed on P. guajava from crude oil polluted area such as RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, and MCH were significantly affected (p<0.05) when compared to those of rats  placed on P. guajava from non-crude oil polluted area. AST and ALT liver enzymes significantly increased in rats placed on P. guajava leaves from crude oil polluted area against rats placed on P. guajava leaves from non-crude oil pollute area. Since data obtained with animals become more severe when translated to humans, it therefore becomes pertinent for those that use medicinal plants from crude oil polluted areas to become aware of the possible effects of using such plants. This study has evaluated the variation in leaf constituents and biochemical indices of rats given leaf samples of Psidium guajava from two different areas were evaluated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Willingness to Pay for Social Health Insurance by the Self-employed in Port Harcourt, Rivers State; A Contingent Valuation Approach

Ikeokwu E. Anderson, Foluke O. Adeniji

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v7i330178

Background/Aim: Urban Self-Employed Social Health Insurance (USSHIP), which is similar to Community-based health insurance schemes CBHI, USSHIP, is a package in the National Health Insurance Scheme NHIS specific but is not limited to self-employed individuals in Nigeria which has been rarely explored as instrument in financing healthcare in Nigeria. This study was aimed to assess the Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) for USSHIP and its determinants amongst the self-employed in Port Harcourt.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 204 self-employed individuals selected from various trade association in Port Harcourt using semi-structured interviewer-administered pre-tested questionnaires. An iterative bidding approach of the contingent valuation method was used to elicit maximum WTP for the schemes. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to determine predictors to WTP. Data collected were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 23 software.

Results: The results show that 89.7% were willing to enrol into the program; the median WTP for the scheme per person/per month is ₦300 ($0.83). The predictors of WTP were marital status, level of education and mode of payment of healthcare.

Conclusion: Sequel to the findings of this study, the WTP amount for social health insurance program by the self-employed is too small, the implications for these findings imply that with the amount stated, the program cannot be successfully implemented. Recognizing this low amount stated for WTP for USSHIP, which is insufficient to scale up the scheme, the government support for the program is highly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies on Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing in Nigeria Case Study: Helical Gear in a Juice Extractor

C. F. Nwaeche, A. O. Fagunwa, A. A. Olokoshe, A. E. Aderonmu, V. C. T. Uzondu, O. Salami, W. B. Asiru

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v7i330179

All over the world, additive and subtractive manufacturing are the two basic manufacturing methods used for the development of engineering goods and products. In most cases, the method adopted by the manufacturers usually depends on its cost-effectiveness. However, most of the manufacturing industries in Nigeria have little or no information on the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two methods. This had led to many industries adopting one particular method hook, line and sinker without considering the merits that would be offered by the alternative manufacturing method. This paper, therefore, compared the two methods of manufacturing by carrying out reverse engineering of worn-out helical gears (components of a juice extractor) developed using additive and subtractive manufacturing techniques. The parts of the equipment were developed using a lathe, milling and deburring machines to carry out the drilling, turning, grinding, milling and deburring for subtractive manufacturing and 3-D printing machine for additive method. Two gears A and B were developed by both subtractive and additive methods using the dimension of two old gears, which serve as the basis for determining the variation of the nomenclatures of the developed gears from the standard. The time used for product development, cost of production and the energy expended during the production of the two gears using additive and subtractive manufacturing methods were also determined using appropriate methods.

The study also showed that it is less expensive to produce both gears A and B using the additive method than the subtractive method. Similarly, in term of energy used, less energy was used during fabrication of the gears using additive method than subtractive method but in general, when you want to print a whole component at once the 3D printer volume could be a major constraint.

Hence, the adaptation of additive manufacturing method as a whole or part with the existing subtractive method will help to improve manufacturing industries in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Urban Self-employed Social Health Insurance Program as an Option in Financing Health Care within the Informal Sector? An Insight into the Acceptability of the Scheme by the Self-employed in Rivers State, Nigeria

Ikeokwu E. Anderson, Foluke O. Adeniji

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v7i330180

Introduction: Health care financing in the Nigerian health sector has been a major impediment within the sector due to increasing healthcare costs. Various forms of financing mechanisms are employed within the country with majority tilting to out-of-pocket payment, which led to the launch of the National Health Insurance Scheme in 2005. The National Health Insurance Scheme has the ambition to provide universal coverage to the population in 15-20 years, but the scheme had its limitations in achieving universal health coverage because it is limited to federal government civil servants neglecting the informal sector, which includes self-employed individuals. Although other forms of social health insurance scheme are being implemented within the country such as the Community Based Health Insurance Scheme. There is no sufficient evidence on the actualization of a health insurance program specifically for the self-employed despite its presence in the health insurance package known as Urban Self-Employed Social Health Insurance Program. This study aims to ascertain the perceived impact and acceptability of the Urban Self-employed Social Health Insurance Program as a viable option in financing healthcare among the self-employed.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 204 self-employed individuals who were selected from seven different trade associations in Port Harcourt using semi-structured interviewer-administered pre-tested questionnaires. A Socio-Economic Status index was used to divide the households into quintile. The respondents rated their perception about the possible benefits of health insurance from 1 (none) to 4 (high) and the willingness of respondents to enrol in a community-based health insurance scheme (elicited as a binary ‘yes’ or ‘no’ variable) was also used as a proxy of acceptability data collected were analysed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS), version 23 software.

Result: A majority 201 (98.5%) of the respondents perceived that having any form of insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and affordable. Respondents gave responses rated with an average mean of 3, which translates to medium impact on financial protection, improved access to healthcare, affordability and improving quality of treatment. Most respondents 183 (89.7%) accepted the urban self-employed health insurance scheme as a strategy for financing healthcare.

Conclusion: Urban Self-Employed Social Health Insurance Program appears to be a viable and acceptable method of paying for healthcare among the self-employed in Port Harcourt city of Rivers State, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Financial Deepening on Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Time Series Appraisal (1986-2018)

Paschal Chikwado Nwakobi, Dorothy Chioma Oleka, Amalachukwu Chijindu Ananwude

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v7i330181

The influence of financial deepening on the economic growth of any nation cannot be underestimated. To this end, the study evaluated the effect of financial deepening on economic growth in Nigeria over a period of thirty three (33) years: 1986 to 2018. Data were collected from statistical bulletins of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and factbooks of the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE). The model estimation followed the Auto-regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) approach with the effect estimated in line with the Granger Causality analysis. We found that economic growth in Nigeria is not affected by financial deepening. The study also stated that the level of growth in the economy is what influences the level of development in the banking sector. The implication is that the Central Bank of Nigeria and the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) should formulate and implement policies geared toward the deepening of the banking sector and the capital markets to help in the efficient and effective mobilization of resources to accelerate the growth of the Nigerian economy. The insurance sector should not be left out in this regard even though citizens seem not to embrace the need for insurance policies. Impediments to the competition in the banking, insurance and capital market activities should be removed by strict legislation in line with international best practices and participants in the markets be protected as well.