Open Access Short Research Article

Sensory Evaluation of Wheat Bran Biscuits Mixed with Flaxseed

Arpana Tiwari, Sunita Mishra

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v6i330155

Biscuit consumption is considered one of the top ten daily consumed foods [1]. The objective of this study was acceptability of biscuit containing three different combinations of powders of wheat bran, flaxseed and wheat viz., 25:75:0, 0:50:50, 20:80:0 were used to prepare 100gms flour mix. Acceptance was assessed using a hedonic scale of nine points. It was noticed that incorporation of flaxseed flour at 80% was unacceptable in biscuit. At this level of incorporation of flaxseed flour, the sensory properties of the product were affected i.e., flavour and taste wise, body and texture, colour and appearance and overall quality whereas 75% addition of flaxseed flour produced good results [2]. The antioxidant activity, phenolic concentration was linearly increased as the fortification was increased [1]. Data revealed that the overall acceptability of biscuit ranged from 9 to 7. This indicated that the recipes were found to fall under the category of ‘like extremely to like moderately’. It can finally be discerned from the sensory scores for biscuit prepared with 75% incorporation of flaxseed flour with 25% of wheat bran flour, that the biscuit was equally acceptable as that of control [2]. The acceptability of sensory characteristics was improved by this fortification immediately after preparation and during storage [3].

Open Access Original Research Article

Radioactivity Concentrations and Their Radiological Significance in Sediments of Some Communities in Andoni, Rivers State, Nigeria

C. P. Ononugbo, O. S. Amah

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v6i330151

Quantification of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediment provides information on geological characteristics, the possibility of petroleum and mineral exploration, radiation hazards to the dwelling populace and so on. The coastal sediment collected from the densely populated coastal area of Andoni, Rivers State Nigeria, were analyzed using a Sodium Iodide activated with thallium γ-ray spectrometer with low background radiation environment. The result showed an inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides at different sampling points. The activity concentration of 226Ra ranges from 9.82±3.41 to 33.37±3.27 Bqkg-1 with an average value of 22.64 Bqkg-1 and 232Th ranges from BDL to 26.78 Bqkg-1 with the average value of 8.45 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 40K was relatively higher than 226Ra and 232Th, ranging from 7.35±3.03 to 75.38±2.75 Bqkg-1 with an average value of 29.01 Bqkg-1. The average mass concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the sediments were found to be 2.04 ±0.002, 2.08 ±0.001 ppm and 0.09± 0.003 % respectively. The 232Th/226Ra ratio was found to be within the range of 0.00 to 3.59 with a mean value of 1.02 which is far below the continental crustal average concentration of 3.82. There was also a poor correlation of radionuclides in the sediment showing differences in their origin. The mean values of AGED, D, AEDE, Hex, Raeq, RLI, Iα, AUI and ELCR were below their recommended values. Thus the radioactivity levels in the studied sediments are generally of very little radiological concern for human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of Efficiency Method for Heavy Metals Determination in Kola Nuts (Cola nitida Schott & Endl.) from Côte d’Ivoire

Kouadio Kan Rodrigue, Biego Henri, Nyamien Yves, Konan Ysidor, Konan Constant, Coulibaly Adama, Sidibe Daouda

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v6i330152

Aims: The current study targets the achievement of a reliable process for the determination of heavy metal contents in kola nuts, namely cadmium, mercury, and lead, for better appreciation of the risks incurred from the consumption of such food products.

Study Design: kola nuts collected from different stakeholders (planters, collectors, stores and centers) were analyzed after the validation of the proposed analytical method.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Laboratory for Food Hygiene and Agro-Industry, LANADA in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, running 2018.

Methodology: Two references were used for the validation of the analytical method, namely the French standard NF V 03-110 and the European directive 2001/22/EC. The assays were achieved with an flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metal contents of some samples collected from different sampling place were then determined

Results: From the data, a significant regression chart was recorded for the heavy metals detection graphs, with significant correlation coefficients (R²˃ 0.99). The linearity domain was validated between 0.5 μg/L and 1.5 μg/L for cadmium, 15 μg/L and 45 μg/L for lead and from 10 μg/L to 100 μg/L for mercury. In addition, the LOD were 0.03 μg/L, 1.85 μg/L and 2.92 μg/L, while the LOQ were 0.07 μg/L, 6.52 μg/L and 3.32 μg/L for cadmium, lead and mercury, respectively. The relative standard deviations of the repeatability and reproducibility assays are below 4%, whereas standard additions of heavy metals are fully recovered, with percentages close to 100%. Contents of cadmium, lead and mercury in kola nuts are respectively valued at 22.97±9.01 μg/kg, 1065.57±613.76 μg/kg and 33.88±31.58 μg/kg from the farmers and 24.99±7.79 μg/kg, 296.51±98.18 μg/kg and 39.74±34.66 μg/kg from the storage centres.

Conclusion: This analytical method could help in ensuring effective sanitary control at different critical points of kola nut distribution channel for promoting a good management of the toxicity concerns in such products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influencing Variables to the Competencies of Learners in the Accreditation and Equivalency Test of Alternative Learning System

Roleen B. Moleño

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v6i330153

The objective of this research was to determine the variables that influence the learners’ competencies in Alternative Learning System (ALS).  Specifically, it aimed to determine: the Accreditation and Equivalency (A and E) test takers’ socio-demographic characteristics; the ALS Instructional Managers’ (IM) socio-demographic characteristics; the extent of use of the mode of A and E program delivery by the IMs; the competencies of the learners in the A and E test based on overall results; the learners’ initial literacy level; whether the learners’ competency in A and E is significantly influenced by their socio-demographic characteristics; whether the learners’ competencies in the ALS A and E test is significantly influenced by the Instructional Managers’ socio-demographic characteristics; whether the learners’ competencies in ALS A and E are significantly influenced by the Instructional Managers’ extent of use of the mode of A and E program delivery; and whether the learners’ competency is significantly influenced by their initial literacy level.  The study employed descriptive-correlational research design utilizing four (4) instruments. There were 1,824 ALS learners and 79 ALS Instructional Managers completely enumerated respondents of the study.  In statistical tools, descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used.  It was concluded in the study that: the face-to-face mode of delivery is the most preferred by the ALS Instructional Managers and ALS learners do not possess the needed competencies in the Sustainable Use of Resources and Productivity.  Further, ALS learners have not gained much competence in their formal school attendance and the learners’ competency in the areas of the A and E test were not outcomes of the influence of variables such as their socio-demographic characteristics, IMs’ socio-demographic characteristics and initial literacy level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Insights into Supply Chain Management of Herbal Medicine in Ghana

Charles Adusei, Ramatu Agambire

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v6i330154

A qualitative exploratory study was conducted on supply chain and the related risk management at Adutwumwaa Herbal Industries Limited (AHL) in Ghana. The study employed a case study research strategy using semi-structured interview guide as data collection tool. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative interviews involving five senior officers from the company. They served as Key Informants for the study. Major Themes that were derived from supply chain management were supply chain approach, management of risk to avoid supply chain break down and supply chain management pitfalls facing organisations. The supply chain approach involved sourcing of raw materials, route to market and distribution of products. Management of safety stock for its flagship brands, using multiple sourcing and technological innovations were adopted in managing risk to avoid supply chain breakdown. Unreliable supply of packaging and labeling materials from suppliers and disruption from Food and Drug Authority were the key supply chain management pitfalls facing the company. The study suggests that if herbal medicine companies want to retain competitive edge then they must pursue supply chain operational excellence by reassessing and adjusting its distribution capabilities periodically to improve responsiveness.