Open Access Systematic Review Article

Determinants of Community-Based Health Insurance Scheme Enrolment in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

G. T. Olowe

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v5i330131

In developing Nations, the Community-based Health Insurance (CBHI) scheme is a potential approach to increasing access to quality healthcare. It has the potency of generating financial resources for health services; plus improve on the standard of life of the people. Evidence based reports suggest that enrolment into the CBHI is still low, particularly among low income earners of the third world nations. Thus, this study was undertaken to review and help formulate policies by existential evidence on the factors that determines enrolment into the CBHI in developing countries. Study adopted the thematic synthesis of both qualitative and mixed method studies that report the above measure of interest. Study relied on Ovid Medline In-Process and other Non-Indexed citations till present. Study sourced the web of Knowledge, Google Scholar for articles relating to enrolment into CBHI in developing countries. Six studies (qualitative and mixed method studies) reporting qualitative results on the factors determining enrolment into CBHI in developing countries met the inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was carried out on each study and findings were synthesised with the aid of thematic synthesis. Four major themes were identified by interpreting and categorizing the themes across all selected studies; Individual factors, Scheme factors, Service provider factors and Requirement to team up with others before enrolment. In the end, study observed enrolment into CBHI scheme in developing countries to be driven by several factors including age and policy making, most of which positively or negatively influence decisions made by households to enrol or not in the CBHI scheme. Findings from this review are expected to contribute to policy and decision making for health care centres under CBHI scheme in developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating Pricing Strategies of Hotel Rooms in City Centre: A Case Study

Ng Yiu Min, Linda Chin Yee Sien, Mohammad Aqil, Masnita Misiran, Zahayu Md Yusof

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v5i330132

In this article, the pricing strategies among hotel rooms dwelling in the city centre are investigated. A sample of 25 hotels with star ratings from 2 to 4 are selected, all situated in the heart of Georgetown, Penang. The primary data is collected, in which hotel room prices were observed for December 2018 through online travel operator, agoda.com platform. A comparative study of four forecasting methods, i.e. simple moving average, adaptive response rate exponential smoothing and multiplicative decomposition method were used to investigate the patterns of pricing strategies for these hotel rooms, with their accuracies being measured. The findings revealed that the average pricing of the room is at its peak before the public holiday, with the seasonal pattern being present, in which the prices are higher on Fridays weekly. Room prices for a hotel with higher star rating were also observed to be more sensitive to holiday effects as opposed to the hotel with a lower star rating.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Drying Methods on the Mineral Content of Three Accessions of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Calyces

B. Amoasah, F. Appiah, P. Tandoh, E. Amoateng

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v5i330133

Fresh Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa l.) calyces have shorter shelf life due to their high moisture content. In order to extend their shelf life, Roselle calyces are dried. However, the effect of different drying methods on mineral composition are not sufficiently reported. A study was therefore conducted to determine the influence of oven, solar and sun drying methods on the mineral content of three accessions (HS11, HS41 and HS89) of roselle calyces grown in Ghana. A 3×3 factorial experiment laid in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications was used. The roselle accessions were harvested 12 weeks after planting. Sodium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, potassium, phosphorus and iron were the mineral elements analyzed for using recommended procedures. The study showed that accession HS41 had the highest calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc content being (0.98%), (8.36 mg/kg), (0.60%), (0.36%), and (2.34mg/kg) respectively. Accession HS89 had the highest magnesium (0.55%) and sodium content (0.030%). With respect to methods of drying, sun recorded significantly highest calcium (0.81%), iron (6.77mg/kg), magnesium (0. 42%), sodium (0.03%), and zinc content (1.93mg/kg). On the other hand, Oven drying resulted in the highest potassium (0.58%) and phosphorus content (0.34).

Open Access Original Research Article

Infestation and Damage by Caryedon serratus (Olivier) Weevil on Stored Tamarindus indica (Linneaus) Fruits in Kano State, Nigeria

S. R. Yusuf, R. A. Ado, H. Sule, B. S. Wudil

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v5i330134

A survey was conducted on the infestation and damage of Caryedon serratus on stored tamarind pods from September to November, 2014 in three local government areas (Doguwa, Gezawa and Kano Municipal) of Kano State in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were randomly administered to 60 respondents. A total of 27 samples of tamarind pods were purchased for damage analysis.  Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the collected data while ordinary least square Regression was used on damage data. Results obtained indicated that un-elevated room storage (in woven sacks) was the preferred (48.3%) form of tamarind storage practiced (91.7%), mostly for a period of 1 – 3 months (60%) of storage before being sold out. More so, about 98.3% of the respondents were aware of C. serratus as pest of tamarind pods. The pods are commonly attacked by such pest (48.3%) from inception to about 3 months of storage leading to highest damage levels (36.7%). The regression analysis revealed that the number of perforations were highly significant (P<.001) in relation to the total number of tamarind pods, however the effect observed on pods was insignificant on weight loss in any of the three locations. The combined models analysis shows Gezawa recorded significantly higher number of perforations (P<.001) compared to others which are similar. On the control measures, 46.7% have reported the application of a control method against C. serratus and that dried pepper (20%) was the most prevalent. Solarization and airtight polythene storage bags were found statistically similar. Only 5% of the respondents use synthetic chemicals although very effective. The present study revealed that C. serratus is a widespread and damaging pest of tamarind in the study areas. Therefore, there is need for a more advanced, cost effective and safe alternative means of control especially from the first three to six months of storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Analysis of Milk and Health Traits in Divergently Classified Holstein Friesian Cows

Okeke Rufina Obioma, Olaoluwa Tosin Olufemi, Oludayo Michael Akinsola, Suleiman Ibrahim Onotu, Allen Olufemi Godday, Makka Nuhu, Ishaya Bawa Atang, Amos Ogundeji

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v5i330135

Genetic parameters for milk and health related traits in low and high milk producing Holstein Friesian cows were estimated using farm collected information on the Jos, Plateau, Nigeria. Milk yield and health related records were extracted from database of the West Africa Milk Company Integrated Dairies Limited. An innovative statistical modeling in this study was the application of repeatability animal models to estimate the genetic parameters. The resulting dataset consisted of 5043 lactations from 608 dams and 39 sires. Genetic correlations were obtained by bivariate analyses of all pair-wise combinations between two traits. In high milk yield Holstein, heritabilities estimate recorded for milk yield (0.43), mastitis (0.26) and lameness (0.33) was high while NIS (0.56), PR (0.22), RR (0.67) and PR (0.22) recorded high estimate in low milk yield Holstein cows. Highest genetic correlation was observed between rectal temperature and vaginal temperature (0.91). Lameness had significant (p<0.05), positive and highest environmental correlation with mastitis (0.95). The heritability estimates of health related traits were low to high; therefore, genetic gain through direct selection alone would be slow, yet still positive and cumulative in the divergently classified Holstein Friesian cows on the Plateau.