Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Health Risk and Elemental Concentrations in Minjingu Vegetables and Soils by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence

Yusuf I. Koleleni, Seriver Tafisa

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v4i230105

The samples of soil and selected species of vegetables (cowpea leaves, spinach, sweet potato leaves, Ethiopian mustard and Chinese cabbages) were randomly collected from four sites, Idara ya maji, Nkaiti, Mbulungu and Mkwajuni of Minjingu village of Manyara in Tanzania. The samples were analyzed by means of wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry to determine the heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables of the field study with emphasis on their health risk index (HRI) assessment. The results indicate that soils have concentration range of 142-1547 for Ca, 737-2515 for K, 2396-4748 for Si, 0-121 for P, 0-181 for Mg, 0-36 for S, 0-68 for Na, 561-942 for Al, 121-4748 for Fe, 0-80 for Mn, 0-53 for Sr, 0-37 for Cs and 0-11 for Ni in mg/kg which was above the maximum tolerable limits(MTL). Elements detected in vegetables were in the range of 2123-6122 for Ca, 747-8005 for K, 65-996 for Si, 40-348 for Mg, for Mn, 85-584 for P, 22-705 for S, 0-218 for Na, 70-835 for Fe, 23-286 for Al, 0-98 for Cs, 84-1076 for Cl and 0-13 for Ni in mg/kg. The highest heavy metal retention capability was exhibited in Cowpea leaves, Spinach and Chinese cabbages but sweet potato leaves and Ethiopian mustard has shown lower concentrations. Control site recorded the least concentration values. The HRI values for Sr, Ni and Fe in vegetables exceeded the maximum threshold limits (HRI>1) set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The findings of this work indicates that soils and vegetables grown, particularly cowpea leaves, spinach and Chinese cabbages were extremely contaminated at levels able to pose detrimental health effects to the consumers. Therefore the consumption of cowpea leaves, spinach and Chinese cabbages should be reduced to the maximum if not abandoned. But limited quantities of Ethiopian mustard and sweet potato leaves can be taken while immediate steps are taken to reduce anthropogenic activities at the polluting site. This situation makes the regular monitoring of the grown vegetables a compulsory act.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis the Effect of Leadership to Safety Climate, Safety Culture and Safety Performance

Nurul Khasanah, Kholil ., Sugiarto .

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v4i230106

In this era of globalisation, occupational safety is the main spotlight in every industry. By implementing a safety management system in the workplace, it is hoped that it can shape the safety climate and positive safety culture, which can be assessed from zero accidents, workforce behaviour and support for the safety of oneself and coworkers.

The main objective of this research was to analyse the effect of leadership on safety climate, safety culture and safety performance. This research was conducted at a plastic packaging manufacturer, PT. Berlina Tbk Tangerang with 133 participants and used the SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) analysis method.

The results of the research analysis showed that leadership, safety climate and safety culture have a simultaneous significant effect on 83% safety performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Background Induced Temperature in and Around Bakery Ovens for Some Selected Locations in Calabar

F. A. Kamgba

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v4i230107

Estimation of background induced temperature from six selected Bakery Ovens in Calabar was investigated. An in-situ measurement approach was adopted in order to quasi-accurately estimate temperature of Oven; wind speed in bakery and ambient temperature around the bakery. The relationships between the measured parameters were obtained from plots of wind speed against Temperature and Temperature of oven against distance from Oven. Statistical correlations of wind speed values and temperature were estimated, which yielded a good positive correlation coefficient for wind speed and temperature in all cases and for all the six locations under study, with the relevant plots; these clearly show that all of the two parameters; wind speed and temperature are necessary to be used in analysing and assessing the wellbeing of workers in the perceived heat stressed environment. On the other hand, the coefficient of determination value shown on each of the correlation plots depicts that the models relating the Temperature and wind speed in each case respectively are good performing models. It was found out that the temperature exposure of workers in all the bakeries under study exceeded the WHO (20oC -29oC) exposure limit for comfort.  All the bakeries visited during this study used firewood industrial oven.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological and Clinical Profiles of Children Aged 0-71 Months Suffering from Acute Diarrhea at Kalembe-lembe Pediatric Hospital in Kinshasa City, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Clément M. Mbadiko, Gédéon N. Bongo, Gracia K. Mbuyi, Landry L. Kemfine, Tshiama R. Claudine, Oscar K. Nsutier, Jacques M. Kanika, Teddy B. Ngando, Jacques M. Bomoi, Cyprien K. Bamvingana, S. N. Mutambel’Hity

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v4i230108

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical and etiological profile of children aged 0-71 months suffering from acute diarrhea, admitted at the Kalembe-lembe Pediatric Hospital in 2015.

Study Design: This study used a retrospective design whereby medical records of children aged 0-71 months were used.

Place and Duration of Study: This survey was carried out at the Kalembe-lembe Pediatric           Hospital in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo between January 1 and December 31, 2015.

Methodology: This study used a questionnaire to collect information whereby 337 cases of acute diarrhea diagnosed at the Kalembe-lembe Pediatric Hospital were recorded, of which 324 cases were selected. The information was collected on a case-by-case basis by consulting the patient records. Data collected were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 10 while the association measures between different qualitative variables were evaluated using Chi-square test and the p-value was 0.05.

Results: A predominance of cases (60.49%) was observed in children under 12 months and potentially in males (55.24%) while the majority of deaths was recorded in this same age group. The mean age of admitted children was 12.4 months and vomiting was the most reported symptom associated with diarrhea (75.61%), followed by hyperthermia (70.37%). Most of children emitted liquid stools (65.12%) and the average number of stools issued per day was 6 times with extremes ranging from 3-45 stools/day. However, we recorded high levels of identified etiologic agents in children with diarrhea compared to those reported in other countries. The identification of etiologic agents of diarrhea was performed only in 56.48% of cases. Rotaviruses, bacteria and parasites were found in 48.08%, 32.78% and 26.77% respectively.

Conclusion: Further studies are needed to study the antibiotic resistance of these pathogens causing acute diarrhea and identify using molecular techniques new strains of bacteria precisely responsible for acute diarrhea and assess their epidemiological and clinical influence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnocentrism and Global Identity as Predictors of Attitude towards Herdsmen-farmers Conflict in South-East Nigeria

Chidozie Edwin Nwafor, Leonard Nnaemeka Ezeh, Paschal Chukwuma Ugwu, Chukwuemeka Nelson Etodike

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v4i230109

The study examined if ethnocentrism and global identity were predictors of attitude (Positive or Negative) towards herdsmen among secondary school students of Nimbo community, Uzo-Uwani Local government Area Enugu state and Awka metropolis, Anambra state Nigeria. Two hundred and thirty-two (232) participants (male 111, 47.8%) and (female 121, 52.2%) were randomly selected from four secondary schools. Their ages ranged from 14-18 (M= 15.99, SD=1.10). Three instruments were used for data collection (Ethnocentrism Scale by Neulip & McCroskey, 2013; Global Identity Scale by Turken & Rudmin 2013 and Attitude towards Herdsmen Scale, 2018 developed in the course of this study. The study was a cross-sectional survey and Pearson correlation design was adopted while and regression statistics were used for analysis. The results showed that ethnocentrism and locality were positively and negatively related to attitude towards herdsmen respectively while global identity did not predict attitude towards herdsmen. Based on the findings, the study implicated attitudinal bias and ethnic sentiments which may be localized as a result of experiences and interactions of the group. It is therefore recommended that desensitization programs along ethnic and religious line be encouraged in areas with herdsmen attack experiences and vulnerable areas under perpetual fear of attack in order to reduce ethnic bigotry and hatred capable of inflaming reprisal attack from the community in order to promote peace and cohabitation.