Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Effectiveness of Mastery and Peer-to-Peer Learning Strategies in Improving Junior Secondary Students’ Learning Outcomes in Basic Science

O. Victor Animola, T. Olufunke Bello

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v3i430092

The study determined the effectiveness of each of Mastery Learning and Peer-to-peer Learning Strategies on students’ performance in Basic Science. It also examined the effectiveness of the learning strategies in enhancing retention Basic Science concepts; and established their effectiveness in improving students’ attitude to Basic Science. These were with a view to determining a better way of improving the learning outcomes of students in Basic Science. The study adopted the non-equivalent, pre-test, post-test quasi-experimental research design. The study sample consisted of 50 Junior Secondary School two (JSSII) students in intact Basic Science classes selected from Owo Local Government Area in Ondo State, Nigeria. The instruments used for data collection were “Basic Science Achievement Test” (BSAT) and “Students Attitude in Basic Science Questionnaire” (SABSQ). The reliability coefficients of 0.79 and 0.63 were obtained for BSAT and SABSQ respectively. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test analysis. The results showed that students in the experimental group peer-to-peer Learning Strategy (PLS) gained higher scores than those in the experimental group Mastery Learning Strategy (MLS), with the PLS being the most effective. Also, the result showed that PLS and MLS enhance students’ retention of Basic Science concepts with the retention mean score of students taught using PLS being the greatest. Finally, it was revealed that PLS and MLS showed effectiveness in improving the students’ attitude to Basic Science with PLS as the most effective. The study concluded that the PLS produce significantly better performance and retention of Basic Science by students than MLS; this is an indication that PLS is an effective mode of instruction for Basic Science students. The study recommends that teacher education programmes should emphasize PLS and MLS when in Basic Science class; also teacher should be provided with adequate training to enable them use PLS and MLS in Basic Science classroom so that learners would be guided to learn meaningfully and would be assisted to develop positive attitude towards Basic Science.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Assessment of Indoor Air Quality of Ventilation Systems

H. O. Stanley, B. Onwuna, C. J. Ugboma

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v3i430095

The aim of the study was to compare the indoor levels of airborne bacteria and fungi of air conditioned (AC) buildings and naturally ventilated (NV) buildings using a Supermarket, a Laboratory and an Eatery as a case study. The predominant bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp. The fungal isolates belong to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Trichophyton, Fusarium, Candida and Chaetomium. The levels of airborne bacteria and fungi were determined using settle plate method. In AC buildings the average air levels of bacteria (supermarket: 24.2 CFU m-3; laboratory: 29.2 CFU m-3; eatery: 51.0 CFU m-3 air) were higher than in NV (respectively: 54.3 CFU m-3; 100.7 CFU m-3; 134.3 CFU m-3 air). The average air levels for fungal isolates were higher in the eatery due to presence of poorly maintained AC system (supermarket: 7.8 CFU m-3; laboratory: 11.5 CFU m-3; eatery: 56.7 CFU m-3 air) than in NV (28.6 CFU m-3; 19.6 CFU m-3; 13.5 CFU m-3 air respectively). Findings from this study showed that AC buildings had lower levels of bacterial and fungal contamination compared to buildings with natural ventilation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lung Cancer: A Chronic Disease Epidemiology; Prevalence Study

Obubu Maxwell, Adeleke Akinrinade Kayode, Yusuf Olufemi Olusola, Adeleke Ireoluwa Joshua, Onwuegbuokwu Virtus Chinedu

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v3i430096

Chronic lung diseases (CLD) including asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and their occurrence in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains of interest. Increasing awareness of the possible adverse effect of CLD on outcomes in MS, such as disability progression and mortality, has heightened the need to understand the relationship between these chronic conditions. Prevalence of lung Cancer was discussed in this paper, with intend to; investigate the number of patients and deaths affected with lung cancer, test the effect of sex on lung cancer incidence, test the effect of environment and educational level on lung cancer incidence, examine the trend in lung cancer, and measure the relative risk associated with lung cancer. Secondary data sourced from the records units of five different hospitals was used. Cross tabulation, Chi-square test for independence, regression analysis, correlation analysis and odds ratio were applied on the three year study. From the study, it was found that lung cancer cases are independent on environmental factor, educational level and sex. A strong linear relationship exists between lung cancer and death from such disease, implying that increase in the number of lung cancer cases has very high positive effect on the occurrence of death  (r = 0.783), 61.4% of the variation in death occurrence is explained  by lung cancer. The probability of dying from lung cancer is higher in patients 50 years and above than in younger patients (age < 50 yrs).

Open Access Original Research Article

Contamination and Pollution Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Rice Samples (Oryza sativa) from Nasarawa West, Nigeria

Abdullahi Abubakar Mundi, Umar Ibrahim, Idris Mohammed Mustapha

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v3i430097

Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the heavy metals contamination level in rice grains (Oryza sativa) from Nasarawa West, Nigeria.

Study Design: To estimate the contamination factor, degree of Contamination and Pollution load index of rice samples from Nasarawa west using the world health organization/food and agricultural organization acceptable limits of some toxic Heavy Metals in Food as reference heavy metals concentration.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out in the Department of physics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, from September 2017 to April 2018.

Methodology: Fifteen (15) samples each were taken from various locations from the rice fields in Keffi, Kokona, Karu, Nasarawa, and Toto respectively. Rice grain samples were dried in an open air at an ambient temperature to constant weight. Husks were removed. Then, the grain rice samples were pulverized and were passed through a 2.00 mm sieve and stored in closed polyethylene bags for irradiation using ECLIPSE Ш Energy Dispersive X – Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) XR–100 CR spectrometer supplied by AMTEK INC. MA; USA.

Results: The values of contamination factor of rice samples from the study area were in the order of Zn < Cu < Ni < Cr < Pb and are all less than 1, indicating a ‘low risk’ of contamination with the value of Cd >> 6 presenting a very high contamination risk of Cadmium. The Pollution Load Index value observed in Nasarawa West were in the order of Nasarawa (0.0683) < Keffi (0.0773) < Toto (0.0972) < Kokona (0.0988) < Karu (0.1389) and are all less than unity (1), indicating that the rice samples were not polluted by Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn.

Conclusion: Findings from this study will help in making policies and preferring solution to public health related issues and further studies may be important.

Open Access Review Article

Review of Fuel Consumption, Draft Force and Ground Speed Measurements of the Agricultural Tractor during Tillage Operations

Amer M. Mamkagh

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v3i430093

Estimating the amount of fuel consumption of an agricultural tractor during various tillage operations will help the selection of the best conservation practices for farm equipment. Draft requirements often dictate the size of the power unit required on a particular farm and, therefore, will also be required for energy management decisions. They will also be considered a prominent factor during the selection of a tractor’s machinery and power source. In addition, ground speed measurement is not only necessary for many agricultural machinery applications but also to monitor and map crop yield and properly change the application rate of agricultural inputs. There are several methods and techniques to measure a tractor’s fuel consumption, draft force, and ground speed. All these methods have many advantages and disadvantages depending on the tractor, the implement used, and the operating conditions. This article reviews some of these methods, providing scope for further research to focus on the potential development and improvement of the measurement methods, and this could positively affect the accuracy of the data and final results of the research.