Open Access Policy Article

The Applicability of the Rule in Rylands V. Fletcher to Petroleum Activities in Nigeria

Tombari Bodo, Christiana Tombari Bodo (Esq)

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v3i129788

This investigation examines the Applicability of the Rule in Rylands v. Fletcher to Petroleum activities in Nigeria. For many years the Nigerian Government had laid emphasis on the need for exploitation of oil for developmental purposes without making adequate provisions for the negative impact of these petroleum activities to the host communities. The Rule in Rylands v. Fetcher is one of the principles at common law, which is to the effect that, a person who for his own purpose brings on his land, collects and keeps there anything likely to do mischief, keeps it at his own peril if it escapes and causes harm to another person, is prima facie answerable to all the likely damages which is the natural consequence of its escape. The devastating effect of petroleum pollution on the land, water and air which forms the eco-system is not novel to our environment. This work analyzes the applicability of the Rule in Rylands v. Fletcher to petroleum activities in Nigeria with the aim of reaching an appropriate compensation payable by the multinational companies at the instance of pollution done to the host communities in the course of their activities in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Predictors of Perceived Stress: A Study among Medical Students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria

Edmund Ndudi Ossai, Alo Tobechukwu Alo, Basil Chukwubuikem Onwe, Divinewill Onyinyechi Okoro, Ngozi Eucharia Ezeagu, Lawrence Ulu Ogbonnaya

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v3i129779

Aims: To determine the prevalence and predictors of perceived stress among medical students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria between February and March 2018.

Methodology: All medical students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki who have spent at least one full academic session in the university were included in the study. Information was obtained using a validated questionnaire which was self-administered. The Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, (PSS-10) was used to determine the prevalence of stress. Chi square test of statistical significance and multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression were used in the analysis and the level of statistical significance was determined by a p value of <0.05.

Results: A total of 385 medical students participated in the study representing a response rate of 83.7%. The mean age of respondents was 23.2±3.4 years and majority, 64.2% were males. The mean perceived stress scale score was 19.8±5.9. The prevalence of high stress among the students was 51.9%. The fifth level class had the highest proportion of students who were stressed, (58.2%). Predictors of perceived high stress among the students included being a male student, (AOR= 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4- 0.9), being satisfied with medical training, (AOR= 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3- 0.8) and willingness to study Medicine again, (AOR= 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3- 0.8).

Conclusion: The prevalence of high stress among the students was high. There is the need to appropriately manage stress in the medical school especially among the female students. Also, ensuring the satisfaction of medical students with their training though subjective will be of immense benefit. The inner resolve of the students to become medical doctors may be the most important factor in the pursuit of their career.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Anthropogenic Activities on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Open Drainage Channels in Port Harcourt

David N. Ogbonna, John O. Ogbuku, Lucky B. Kpormon

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v3i129783

Wastewater and sediment samples from selected locations of the Ntanwogba creek in the metropolitan city of Port Harcourt were collected. Physicochemical parameters were determined using standard analytical procedures. The results of the physicochemical analysis of the wastewater at different locations in this study was reported to have fell short of the recommended limits in terms of the turbidity, BOD5, nitrate, pH, TDS, temperature, DO, COD and chloride concentrations. The pH of the wastewater effluent samples ranged from 6.4–7.4, while sediments ranged from 5.3–5.7, the temperature regime for the samples at all study sites ranged 26.6-29.50C. Similarly, TDS and EC levels from wastewater samples ranged from 375–449 mg/l and 501-812.6 µS/cm, respectively.  BOD5 ranges from 33.6 to 201.6 mg/l while chloride concentrations ranged from 34.30-61.06 mg/l. Similar trends were observed for sediments in all stations. The physicochemical characteristics from both sources were statistically significantly different at p < 0.05, and these values were not within the recommended limits for such effluents throughout the sampling period. The conclusion is that wastewater with a high domestic load has the highest negative impact on water quality in a river which suggests that the water resources has lost it potability. This calls for urgent attention for responsible agencies to ensure proper implementation of waste management policies to sanitize our environment. This is because failure to enforce the regulations might pose severe threat to receiving water bodies/resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heavy Metals Concentration in Swampy Agricultural Soil of Nasarawa West, Nigeria

Abbas Abdullahi Auta, Umar Ibrahim, Abdullahi Abubakar Mundi, Idris Mohammed Mustapha, Musa Usman Sarki

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v3i129786

Aim: This research was carried out to investigate the concentration of heavy metals in swampy agricultural soil of Nasarawa west, Nigeria.

Study Design: To compare the swampy soil heavy metal concentrations with regulatory standard or allowable values by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other National and International standards. 

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University Keffi between January, 2018 and October, 2018.

Methodology: Ten soil samples from each of thefive sampling locations (Karu, Keffi, Kokona, Nasarawa, and Toto) were randomly collected. A total of fifty (50) soil sampleswere collected within the period of one week.  The collected samples were stored in polyethylene bag and labeled properly and taken to the Center for Energy Research and Development (CERD) at Obafemi Awolowo University Ile- ife Osun State, Nigeria. At CERD, elemental analysis was carried out for the fifty sample using X- ray fluorescent spectrometry analyzer.

Results: The range of mean concentration of Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, and Cu (in KR, KF, KK, NS, and TT locations) are 243.60- 502.80 mg/kg, 7.40- 37.00mg/kg, 260.90- 524.50 mg/kg, 167.80- 336.60 mg/kg, 20222.90- 58170.50 mg/kg, 342.20- 555.10 mg/kg, and 266.60- 515.90 mg/kg respectively. The average mean of all the sample locations are found to be higher than the WHO allowable concentration limits of As (20 mg/kg), Pb (100 mg/kg), Cd (3 mg/kg), Zn (300 mg/kg), Fe (n.a), Ni (50 mg/kg), and Cu (100 mg/kg)respectively. There is high concentration Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the swampy soil.

Conclusion: The results indicates that the swampy agricultural soils of Nasarawa west (Karu, Keffi, Kokona, Nasarawa, and Toto) are contaminated with toxic metals (Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, and Cu).

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Some Prevention Strategies against Contamination of Cyperus esculentus and Tigernut-Derived Products of Economic Importance

N. Maduka, F. S. Ire

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2019/v3i129792

Tigernut is a popular plant because of its sweet tubers (Cyperus esculentus) which has numerous benefits. Contamination of tigernut tubers could be of physical, microbial or chemical through post harvest processes, handling, packaging, storage and retailing. Any form of contamination of tiger nut tubers could impact on overall quality and shelf life of the tiger nut-derived products. Although several studies had been carried out on the nutritional, antinutritional, physicochemical, sensory and microbiological quality of tigernut tubers as well as numerous edible tiger nut-derived products, it is important to review recent research findings on contamination of tigernut tubers and popular tigernut-derived products in order to effectively implement prevention strategies. This will promote food safety and food security especially in developing countries such as Nigeria.