Open Access Original Research Article

Consumption, "Tourism-Merchandise" and Actor-Network Theory: The Cartography of Controversies and the Case of Telegraph Rock Trail – RJ

Bárbara Lúcia Guimarães Alves, Fred Tavares, Giselle Gama Torres Ferreira, Jefferson Fernando Gonçalves Guedes da Costa, Margarete Ribeiro Tavares, Marlen Maria Cabral Carvalho

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i329750

The contemporaneity is marked, in part, by the Control Society, characterised, among other aspects, by consumption. In this scene, both the material and the immaterial objects come to have value in the market, so that one of the influential tools in this period is the use of sociotechnical networks, also involving the social behaviours of individuals and their desires of belonging. In this perspective, the research aims at analysing the use of the images inherent to the landscape of the Telegraph Rock Trail - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - transmitted in these networks, as an influencing factor in the increase of the number of visitors in this place, having as background to the control society. The study attentive to Bruno Latour's Actor-Network Theory (ANT), which measures the fact that the "human actor" and "non-human" can transform the society. Thus, Facebook posts were analysed from the Cartography of Controversies, which is the operationalisation of the Actor-Network Theory (ANT). For that, the contents of the publications from the years 2015 to 2017 were analysed, in the page called "Pedra do Telégrafo_RJ", with 41 thousand participants. Clues point out that the use of socio-technical networks, in the scope of consumption may have influenced the process of production of the trail, through its transformation into a product that now has market value, through the logic "tourism-commodity".

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness, Perception to Immunisation Reminders and Recall among Caregivers of Infants in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria

N. C. Eze, B. N. Azuogu, E. U. Nwonwu, A. P. Agu

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i329754

Background: Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to caregivers and support them in decision making about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the awareness, perceptions to childhood immunisation reminders and recall system in Abakaliki. This study, therefore, assessed the awareness, perceptions of caregivers to childhood immunisation reminders and recall system in improving immunisation coverage in Abakaliki.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive analytical study design comparing two large health facilities (Mile-Four and St.Vincent Hospitals in Ebonyi and Izzi Local Government Areas respectively) in Ebonyi State was used for the survey. The study duration was three months. Sample size was determined using the formula for comparing two proportions. Data were collected using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire from 145 caregiver-child pair from each group. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 22 was used for analysis. Ethical approval was obtained from the Research and Ethics Committee (REC) of the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA), Nigeria. 

Results: The mean age of respondents in Mile-Four and St.Vincent hospitals were 26.6 ±4.9 years and 27.1±4.2 years respectively. Higher proportion of caregivers in Mile-Four group (18.6%) than in St.Vincent group (14.5%) had ever heard of immunisation reminders and recalls prior to this study. Similarly, only 8.3% of caregivers in Mile-Four and 4.8% in St.Vincent had ever been reminded and/or recalled on the course of their children’s immunisation uptake. A comparable proportion of respondents in Mile-Four (93.1%) and St.Vincent (94.5%) perceived reminders and recalls very important. There was a significant relationship between respondent's marital and educational status and positive perception about immunisation reminders and recalls in Mile-Four and respondent’s age and marital status and positive perception about immunisation reminders and recalls in St.Vincent (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Respondents’ awareness was low but positive perception to reminders and recall was found. It is pertinent for health policy makers and programme managers to understand these factors when implementing immunisation communication system.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Essay on the Psychosociology of Consumption through the Perspectives of Control Society and Liquid Modernity

Fred Tavares, Giselle Gama Torres Ferreira, Gabriel Grego Fialho, Jefferson Fernando Gonçalves Guedes da Costa

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i329759

Reflecting on a psychosociological analysis of consumption requires an epistemological challenge that breaks with metaphysical ideological traditions and, to a certain extent, provokes philosophical discussions about the construction and validity of its theoretical thinking, especially when contextualised under the aegis of the perspective of the control society and liquid modernity. This study investigates the relations of consumption in liquid modernity (postmodernity), through the psychosocial bias, revealing the liquid, plastic, fluid and changeable subjectivity of the consumer in a globalised context of a control society, which values " having" to the detriment of "being". Through the theoretical assumptions traced by Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari and Zygmunt Bauman. How to reflect the study of consumption through psychosociology, according to the view of the society of control and liquid modernity, in the production of a rhizomatic, plural, fragmented, schizophrenic and anthropophagic subjectivity entangled by the desire to consume, configuring and deconstructing pret-a-porter identities as ways of being regulated by the market, according to the logic that to "be" you must "have"? To answer this question are adopted as theoretical foundation complementary authors and works that dialogue with the object defined by the conceptual bias established for investigation. The exploratory research is used as an investigative methodology, through the technique of bibliographic survey. It is not intended, in this work, to draw a map of these differences. The pretension is simply to reflect how the philosophical thoughts of Deleuze, Guattari and Bauman contribute to the field of psychosociology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Properties of Selected Farmlands in Rumuokparali Community

H. O. Stanley, J. Alexander, C. J. Ugboma

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i329761

This study was conducted to determine the rhizosphere soil microorganisms associated with the cultivation of Manihot esculentum, Comelina bengalensis, Talinum triangulare and Telfairia occidentalis. The plants were obtained from newly cultivated, ready for harvest and fallowed farmlands. The rhizosphere microorganisms were enumerated and compared with bulk soil microorganisms. The heterotrophic bacterial count for newly cultivated farmland ranged from 2.9 x107-6.3x108 cfug-1 and total fungal ranged from 5.6 x104-7.0 x106 sfug-1, while the bulk soil total heterotrophic bacterial count was 4.96 x 109 cfug-1 and the total fungal count was 5.87 x 106 sfug-1. The heterotrophic bacterial count for ready for harvest farmland ranged from 1.82 x108-1.80 x109 cfug-1 and total fungal ranged from 2.3 x104-3.57x106 sfug-1, while the bulk soil total heterotrophic bacterial count was 1.90x109 cfug-1 and the total fungal count was 2.30x106 sfug-1. The heterotrophic bacterial count for fallowed farmland ranged from 5.65 x108-1.50x109 cfug-1 and total fungal ranged from 1.33 x106-3.05x106 sfug-1, while bulk soil total heterotrophic bacterial count was 1.74.0x109 cfug-1 and total fungal count was 1.07x106 sfug-1. The rhizosphere soil bacterial isolates belong to the genera: Staphylococcus, Hafnia,  Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Klebsiella, Tatumella, Enterobacter, Corynebacterium and Pseudomonas while fungal isolates belong to the genera: Aspergillus, Epicocum, Chrysosporium, Trichosporon, Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Chaetomium.  The bulk soil bacterial isolates belong to genera: Staphylococcus, Hafnia, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Klebsiella, Tatumella, Corynebacterium and Pseudomonas while the fungal isolates belong to genera: Aspergillus, Epicocum, Chrysosporium, Trichosporon, Cryptococcus and Chaetomium. Microbial diversity of rhizosphere soil was more compared to bulk soil.

Open Access Review Article

Prescription and Prescribing: An Overview of Basic Concepts Mostly Overlooked

A. K. Mohiuddin

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i329762

While drugs have the capacity to enhance health, they all have the potential to cause harm if prescribed inappropriately. For this reason, it is recommended that healthcare professionals who prescribe medications exercise critical thinking skills to ensure the safe and effective use of therapeutic agents. Pharmacists have crucial role plays in both handling prescription and prescribing.  A rational prescribing is the sole of patient safety, compliance and patient relief. This paper proposes aims that a prescriber should try to achieve, both on first prescribing a drug to maximise effectiveness, minimise risks and costs, and respect the patient's actual need.

Background: Historically, the pharmaceutical and medical professions have devoted considerable time and effort to the development and rational utilisation of safe and effective drugs for the treatment and prevention of illness. Today, that successful effort continues, helping to achieve the highest standards of health in the world for the American people. But in order to gain maximum benefit from the use of drugs while minimising their adverse side effects, prescribers and pharmacists must maintain effective communications not only among themselves, but with their patients as well. The directions for drug use and other information which prescribers indicate on prescription orders and which pharmacists transfer to prescription labels are critical to safe and effective drug therapy. In order to assure that this information is conveyed clearly and effectively to patients, the following guidelines have been developed by the American Pharmaceutical Association and the American Society of Internal Medicine.