Open Access Short Research Article

Research a Prerequisite for Development: Challenges in Nigeria and Possible Solutions

M. A. Emakoji, K. N. Otah

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i229748

The world is so dynamic and fast growing, things keep changing on a daily basis and as such, has experienced different phases of industrial revolution. Consequent to this, many countries have had their names listed among the developed countries of the world based on their economic development, while others are listed among the developing countries of the world. The secret of the developed countries no doubt, is rooted in the quality of research being carried out. However, one begins to wonder, are the developing countries not actually involved in research? This paper seeks to identify the challenges of conducting research and to suggest possible solutions in overcoming these challenges with a view to making Nigeria enlisted among the developed countries of the world. Difficulty in Accessing Funds, Absence of a Clear Cut Philosophy of National Development, Frequent disruption of Academic Calendar of our Tertiary Institutions, Reduced Rate of Mentoring Junior Researchers by Experienced and Senior Researchers, Braindrain, Lack of Motivation and Incentives for Researchers, Insecurity, Unsatisfactory Mode of Functioning Libraries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inclusion Complexation of Antihypertensive Drug for Solubility Enhancement to Increase Its Bioavailability

Kavita Bahmani

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i229740

Carvedilol is a β- adrenergic receptor blocker, and it has the ability to decrease the heart rate, myocardial contractility and myocardial oxygen demand. It competitively blocks β-1, β-2 and α-1 receptors. it also lacks sympathomimetic activity and has vasodilating properties that are extended primarily through α-1 blockade. The poor aqueous solubility of carvedilol leads to poor bioavailability and poor dissolution rate in the biological fluid. Therefore, it can be overcome by inclusion complexation using β- cyclodextrin. The inclusion complexes of carvedilol were made using different concentrations of β- cyclodextrin and behaviour of β-cyclodextrin was studied towards the carvedilol in order to develop a new oral dosage form having enhanced dissolution rate and bioavailability. On studying the phase diagram of carvedilol it showed AL type phase solubility. Inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin and its physical mixture with different ratios were studied for dissolution study and their characterisation was confirmed by DSC, FTIR and SEM analysis. Inclusion complexes of carvedilol were successfully formed and showed more drug release profile as compared to their physical mixtures. The significant improvement in the rate of release of β-CD complex formulation can help in appreciable reduction in the lag time of the drug absorption, characterised by high tmax values (120 minutes), thereby can improve the rate of bioavailability and onset of its therapeutic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Beyond the Construction, Design and Planning Scenarios of Eco-Buildings

Bogdan Cioruța, Mirela Coman

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i229742

Lately, even in Romania, the interest in ecological homes has begun to take on proportions. Hugged by curiosity, but especially by reorienting towards a (more) healthier lifestyle, people seek to find out as much detail as possible about them - thus capturing the outline and the present work. Although eco-house construction is simple and eliminates many of the heavy stages of a classical construction, future homeowners omit, due to lack of information, this option, especially in the context in which we do not have a good filter of information about this subject, which will give us the real benefits we have.

Ecologic houses seem to be a trend with strong growth, because the shapes that they can wear are extremely varied. The great variety, low price and promise of ecological housing is likely to convince people to completely change their lifestyle. How well are we prepared for sustainable development? How do we meet the demands of today's society? What does a green house look like, how does it behave in time, and how much does it cost? What are the trends in designing a green house? These are just a few questions that we will answer during the work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Thermal and Chemical Modification on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Leucaena leucocephala Wood

B. Olufemi, S. O. Ayanleye, E. A. Iyiola

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i229744

This study examined the physical and mechanical properties of thermally and chemically modified Leucaena leucocephala wood. Sample planks were obtained from Akure and reduced to defect-free samples of 20 mm × 20 mm × 60 mm. Wood samples were oven dried to a constant weight at 103 ± 2°C and cooled in a desiccator before the thermal treatment. Heat treatment of wood was Carried out in a muffle furnace at 140, 160 and 180°C for 1hr and 2 hrs. Butyl Acetate was used for the chemical treatment. The dimensional stability, weight gain of the samples was measured with parameters such as volumetric swelling, percentage weight gain and water absorption.

The result of WA showed that there was a decrease with increased temperature and treatment time. At a treatment time of 2 hr, lower values of WA were obtained as compared to the control samples which are 22.65% at 160°C and 17.15% for 180°C. Volumetric swelling values of 5.87 and 5.56 at 160°C and 180°C were obtained during the experiment. The result of the experiment showed that the water absorption of the wood decreases at increasing temperature and treatment time but after prolonged soaking of wood in water thermally treated wood showed lower resistance to biodeterioration as compared to chemically treated wood.

Chemically modified wood showed increased MOR at 2 hrs treatment time (109.75 N/mm2) than thermally treated wood with MOR of 99.14 N/mm2 at 160°C and 48.76 N/mm2 at 180°C which makes them be more durable and can therefore be used for constructional purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Escherichia coli Isolated from Urine of Patients in Selected General Hospitals in Abuja Municipal, Nigeria

M. O. Eghieye, S. M. Jodi, B. E. Bassey, I. H. Nkene, R. H. Abimiku, Y. B. Ngwai

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i229745

This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli from urine of patients with suspected urinary tract infections (UTIs) in selected general hospitals in Abuja Municipal, Nigeria. Four Hundred and Thirty urine samples were collected between September 2017 and May 2018 from patients attending Asokoro General Hospital (AGH), Garki Hospital Abuja (GHA) and Wuse General Hospital (WGH); and E. coli was isolated and identified by culture, microscopy and biochemical tests. The overall occurrence of E. coli was 52 (12.1%). The occurrences in relation to the hospitals were of the order: GHA (14.7%) > WGH (12.6%) > AGH (9.0%). The highest (50%) occurrence was at age 41-50 years in WGH, and the lowest (4.3%) was at age 31-40 years in AGH. More females than males harboured the bacteria in all the hospitals. Isolates from AGH showed highest (100.0%) resistance to Sulphamethoxazole/Trimethoprim but least (0.0%) resistance to Ciprofloxacin. Isolates from GHA showed the highest resistance to Cefotaxime and Streptomycin (95.2%) but least (23.8%) to Gentamicin and Imipenem. Isolates from WGH showed highest (88.8%) resistance to Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid but least (16.7%) to Sulphamethoxazole/Trimethoprim. The commonest antibiotic resistance phenotype in AGH was Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid-Streptomycin-Cefotaxime-Ceftazidime-Imipenem-Ampicillin (3.9%); in GHA was Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid-Streptomycin-Sulphamethoxazole/Trimethoprim-Cefotaxime-Ceftazidime-Ampicillin (7.7%); and in WGH was Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid-Streptomycin-Cefotaxime-Cefotaxime-Ceftazidime-Imipenem-Ampicillin (3.9%). All the isolates had MAR indices above 0.2; the most common index in AGH was 0.4 (at 30.8%), GHA was 0.7 (at 33.3%) and WGH was 0.7 (at 27.8%). The commonest class of antibiotic resistance was MDR with the order of occurrence as: GHA (92.2%) > WGH (77.7%) > AGH (76.6%). Ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and imipenem were the most effective antibiotics in the study location. However, MAR indices in this study have shown that the isolates originated from an environment where antibiotics are freely available and misused/abused. Hence, there is a need for greater monitoring of antibiotic supplies and use.