Open Access Minireview Article

National Integration and the Challenge of Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria

Dickson D. Agbaji, Glory A. Akhabue, Rita O. Charles, Daniel E. Duruaku, Fidelis E. Egor, Uduak G. Pepple, Vivian G. Uduma

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i116172

Nigeria has witnessed crises which have threatened its peace and security since independence. In the last few decades, especially from the usurpation of administrative powers by the military, Nigerian societies have been undergoing difficult times vis-à-vis ethnoreligious conflagrations that impact on the nation’s integration. This is as a result of the nature of interactions among the various amalgamated ethnoreligious and regional groups who pursue their objectives through different means to ensure they achieve their ends. These groups who have applied militant approach in carrying out their primary objectives include the Oodua People’s Congress (OPC), the Arewa People’s Congress (APC), Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) as well as the current Boko Haram sect (our focus), the Fulani Herdsmen crisis, the Niger Delta Avengers, and the Indigenous People of Biafra. The study, hence, examines the challenge of the Boko Haram insurgency to national integration in Nigeria. To analyze this heinous phenomenon, the study made use of secondary data which include the review of published textbooks, journals, reports, etc., and the social-structural conflict approach was adopted as the tools of analysis for the study. The paper shows that Boko Haram insurgency has posed a great threat to the integration of the Nigerian state, just as it has undermined Nigeria’s development by causing the loss of human lives and economic resources, dislocation of people, and increased poverty rate. The paper, therefore, recommends the need for a context-specific and multi-layer conflict resolution, management and prevention initiative(s) encapsulating a broad-based local, regional and international collaboration between all concerned stakeholders; reforms in the nation’s educational and infrastructural sectors; and the governments’ need to place as their basic attention the welfare of the citizens through well guided policies so as to increase citizens’ living standards and support human capital development.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Off-season Water Supply Situation: The Case of Abetifi in the Kwahu-East District of Ghana

John Adu Kumi, Philemon Obiri Afari, Beatrice Nyarko

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i116181

The study aims to investigate the characterising features of off-season water supplies in the Kwahu-Abetifi Township, situated in the Kwahu-East District of Ghana.

A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed for this research.

The study was conducted in the Kwahu East district of Ghana during August 2017 to December 2017.

A stratified sampling technique was employed to select 200 respondents for this study. Respondents were interviewed using prepared and validated questionnaires. Data obtained from the completed questionnaires were analysed by using the statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

The community people including school-going children, covered long distances and stayed in long queues to access water. They, however, spend long time in accessing water for their use in homes during the dry season. Durations respondents (n= 200) used in accessing water and returning to their homes were as follows: Approximately 15 minutes (10%); 20 minutes (16%); 35 minutes (22%); and more than 40 minutes (52%). The accessed water was perceived to be good (68%) and could be used for several domestic purposes including drinking (19%), cooking (47%), bathing and washing (34%). The study underscored the need for the revamp of broken down water supply systems in the study area and expansion of existing ones by Government to ease and improve accessibility for adequate and potable water supplies mainly during the dry season.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges Affecting the Adoption of Agroforestry Practices around Chepalungu Forest in Bomet County, Kenya

Monica Mbatha Masibo, Joseph Hitimana, Ann Sitienei Yegon, Yuda Odongo Owino

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i116184

Anthropogenic activities around Chepalungu forest has lead to its reduction in size and has resulted in its degradation. Continued dependency on this forest may result in its total depletion despite its high biological diversity and the value of its natural resources. Farmers in the area have been largely uninterested in adopting agroforestry practice around Chepalungu forest, despite the potential for these practices to reduce demands on the forest. This study identified barriers to adopting agroforestry practices around Chepalungu forest in Bomet County, Kenya. Researchers adopted descriptive survey research design in this study. The study was done in 2016. The study sites were four locations around Chepalungu forest (Bing’wa, Siongiroi, Ndanai, and Abosi), which are 5 km from the forest edge and were selected using simple random sampling method. A total of 377 household questionnaires were administered in the four locations. Chi-Square and Mann Whitney U tests were used in the data analysis. Significance levels were expressed at P<0.05 using SPSS version 17 software. The results showed that there was a significant association (c2= 530.8; P <0.01) between the types of agroforestry practices and challenges affecting the adoption of agroforestry practices. Notable challenges were: damage by animals, damage by man, tree nursery problems, inadequate capital, natural calamities, competing land uses, managerial problems and seed acquisition problems.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Crude Oil Degradation Using Spent Mushroom Compost (SMC) of Pleurotus florida

H. O. Stanley, S. N. Maeba, D. K. Gbenekanu, C. J. Ugboma

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i116188

This paper investigated the effectiveness of spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus florida in the biodegradation of crude oil contaminated soil for a period of 42 days. The crude oil contaminated soil was supplemented with different concentrations of the SMC of P. florida throughout the period of study. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters including Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) content were monitored from the baseline to the 42nd day. Results showed significant decreases in the physicochemical parameters during the study period. The percentage loss of TPH at the end of the investigation was 90.09%. The hydrocarbon utilising bacterial isolates were Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Flovobacterium sp, Micrococcus sp and Arthrobacter sp. The hydrocarbon utilizing fungal isolates were Penicillium sp, Fusarium sp, Sacchoromyces sp, Microsporum sp, Cryptococcus sp and Mucor sp. This study showed that SMC of Pleurotus florida is an effective nutrient source for biodegradation.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Anthropometric Indicators in Diet and Physical Activity

R. N. Ativie, E. I. Ekhoye, O. A. Udi, O. C. Okezue, U. A. Ezugwu, N. V. Ibe

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v2i116192

Lifestyle patterns which include diet, level of physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking and stress are capable of having both positive and negative effect on various health indicators such as anthropometric, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters of body physiology. This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between diet, physical activity and anthropometric indicators [Weight (Wt.), Height (Ht.), Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist and Hip circumferences (WC, HC) and Waist-Hip ratio (WHR)]. Three hundred and seventy five (375) young adults with a mean age of 21.61±2.168 years were selected using the convenience sampling technique. International physical activity questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire were used to collect information on their physical activity level and dietary intake respectively, following which selected anthropometric indices (Wt, Ht, BMI, WC, HC and WHR) were measured. Statistical measure of association (correlation) and differences in mean were obtained for variables using the spearman rank and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) respectively. Results revealed a higher dietary intake in males than females with a statistically insignificant association between BMI, HC, WC and dietary intake. However, there was a positive significant association between dietary intake and WHR dietary intake; and BMI. Result also revealed a negative association between HC, WC and physical activity though statistically insignificant. Proper nutritional habits and improved physical activity levels can positively influence anthropometric variables of health.