Open Access Original Research Article

Geotechnical Competence Assessment and Groundwater Prospect Deductions from Geoelectrical Sounding around Idanre Local Government Area of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria

O. O. Falowo

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v1i413081

Sixty vertical electrical soundings with maximum electrode spacing of 100 m; and seventy static water level measurements were undertaken in Idanre Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria with the aim of assessing the engineering competence of the soil material to host civil engineering structures; and also establish notable point/location with groundwater prospect for borehole drilling and development. Typical sounding curves from the area include H, A, HA, KH, QH, and AA reflecting diverse lithological variations. The H, A, and HA curve types are the most preponderant constituting 30%, 15% and 25% respectively. The A (15%) and AA (7%) curve types suggest subsurface geoelectric configurations apparently favourable for foundation construction, as they showed an increase in resistivity (competence) with a corresponding increase in depth. The QH, KH, HA and H curve types constituting about 78% are favourable for groundwater accumulation and development. The topsoil is generally composed of sandy clay which is moderately competent soil material to harbour civil structures such as road, buildings. Although some degree of settlement is expected especially along traverses where the weathered layer is clayey. The study shows that 70% of the area in the upper 10 m is moderately suitable for civil engineering shallow foundation construction. The weathered layer is generally clay/sandy clay with resistivity less than 200 Ω-m, therefore can serve as earth medium for electrical material. The major aquifer units in the area are combined weathered layer and fractured basement (common in Aponmu and Jimgbe); a weathered layer (prominent in Imolumu, Ayefemi, Onipanu and Ajegunle) and fractured basement aquifer (found in Ajegunle and Odode). The maximum probable drilling depth to these aquifers varies between 15 m to 30 m. Areas with high static water level are characterized by thin overburden thickness (shallow depth to basement rocks). Also, areas with low static water level have corresponding thick overburden thickness (deep depth to basement rock/high depth of weathering). However substantial settlement may occur in areas with high static water level which could exceed the tolerable limit and threatens the integrity of structures during the raining season, coupled with the clayey nature of the weathered layer in many places.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

H. O. Stanley, C. S. Orakwuemma, B. O. Onumajuru, A. S. Opukeme, L. O. Onaghise

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v1i413084

The problem of municipal waste is a challenge of global proportion occasioned by exponentially increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, inefficient utilization of natural resources, lack of citizen awareness regarding the environmentally adequate disposal of waste, consumption, socioeconomic status (lifestyle), and others. This study aimed to assess solid waste disposal practices in Yenagoa metropolis, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive and cross-sectional approach where multi-stage sampling was applied to select the sample communities by a simple random sampling method and the cluster areas for data collection by a cluster sampling method. The study revealed that the residents had a good awareness of 229 (95.4%) of waste management practices. About 86.7% of respondents keep their wastes in the bin while 6.3%, 5.0% and 2.1% practiced burning, throwing into the river or along the roads and keeping in the backyard respectively. Waste collection by the sanitation authority was relatively high (70.4%) in some locations in comparison to areas where wastes were never removed (22.1%). The residents’ attitude towards solid waste disposal was generally good. However, the sanitation level was strongly constrained by limitations on the part of the sanitation authority. The sanitation authority does not cover all areas in the city because of manpower and equipment shortage. Yenagoa is a small city with most areas unplanned and having so many shanties. All wastes in the city are collected without sorting or recycling. The sanitation can be improved if the government would provide at subsidized cost, waste disposal materials such as polythene bags and plastic bins for the residents. More waste collection points should be sited to ease disposal and must be evacuated on a timely basis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Health, Safety & Environment Culture Perception by Construction Workers in Owerri Metropolis, Nigeria

Faisal C. Emetumah

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v1i413088

The relevance of the construction industry to Nigeria's economy is premised on its potential to bridge the wide gap in infrastructural deficit in Nigeria and also provide numerous jobs for the teeming young population. However, Health, Safety and Environmental anomalies can significantly militate against human and environmental wellbeing if they are not adequately managed. On that note, the study aims at evaluating  Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) culture perception by construction workers in Owerri metropolis, in order to understand how the individual facets (health, safety and environment), as well as HSE policy, is perceived by the construction workers. Relevant literature was reviewed on organizational culture, international perspective on HSE, European as well as Nigerian viewpoints on HSE. In order to achieve the study aim, a survey design was adopted for data collection through which 122 questionnaires were retrieved from construction workers randomly selected in the study area. Analysis of the study results shows that while most respondents understand what HSE means, they are unaware of government regulations on HSE policy. Furthermore, Pearson Chi-Square test statistic shows that awareness about government regulations on HSE does not have a significant association with an understanding of what HSE culture means (X2 > = 0.747, P = .387). In addition, the study posits that there is a weak correlation between missed work days and length of time working in the construction sector (Spearman's correlation coefficient (rho) = .019 and P = .83). The study recommends instituting a comprehensive HSE regulatory framework in Nigeria which will go a long way in enshrining a positive HSE culture in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Air Temperature and Rainfall Trends in Egypt

Bahgat M. Abdel-Maksoud

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v1i413090

This paper aims at estimating the trend of climate change and examining its effect on agriculture in Egypt. The study focused on the changes in air temperature and rainfall. The monthly time series data was obtained from the World Bank Group Climate Change Knowledge Portal on temperature and rainfall for the period of 1991-2015. Time series and regression analysis were applied for data analysis. Seasonal variations in air temperature and rainfall through the study period were examined. The study relied on the previous research and personal interviews with some experts in the field to know the effect of climate change on agriculture in Egypt.

Results showed fluctuations and an increase in the air temperature for all the twelve months of the study period. Seasonal variations and a decline in the rainfall were found particularly in the month of June. The future effect of these changes on the Egyptian agriculture was presented in this study. Also, adaptation and mitigation practices to climate change were described. The role of agricultural extension and the need for effective extension services to reduce the effects of this phenomenon on agriculture in Egypt was emphasized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isotherm Studies of the Biosorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II) Using Chicken Feather

Salaudeen Abdulwasiu Olawale, Abdulrahman Wosilat Funke, Aliyu Haruna Dede, Abudukadiri Habeeb

Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajarr/2018/v1i413094

This study was carried out to examine the adsorption isotherm (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin Radushkevich adsorption isotherm) of Pb(II) and Cu(II) in order to determine the  maximum adsorption capacity of chicken feather, CF. Equilibrium sorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) using homogeneously sized Chicken Feather (CF) was carried out and the physico-chemical properties of the feathers were determined. Results revealed that the maximum biosorption capacity of Pb(II) and Cu(II) by the chicken feather from Langmuir isotherm model were 79.36 and 61.92 mg/g respectively. Separation factor RL were 0.195 and 0.018 indicating a favourable adsorption process. Mean free energy (E) from Dubinin Radushkevich isotherm model were 1.291 and 0.102 KJ/mol for Pb(II) and Cu(II) respectively, indicating a physical adsorption process. Negative standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG) obtained indicated that the Pb(II) biosorption process was spontaneous and thermodynamically feasible.