Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2582-3248)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJARR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of 'research'. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports en-US Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports 2582-3248 Alterations in Haematological and Biochemical Parameters in Sokoto Red Goats Infected with Orf Virus: A Case Report <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To determine the alterations in some haematological and serum biochemical parameters in contagious ecthyma (CE) or Orf-infected Sokoto red goats (SRG).</p> <p><strong>Presentation of Case: </strong>Following a complaint of sore mouth disease in SRG, the patients were noticed to be docile, pyrexic with congested visible mucus membranes. There were crusty skin lesions around the oral and nasal commissures which were firm and painful. Blood samples were taken for routine haematological and biochemical investigations and results presented and discussed.</p> <p><strong>Discussion and Conclusion: </strong>There are paucity of information on the haematological and serum biochemical changes associated with CE in SRG. Thus, this case report presents the alterations in some haematological and biochemical parameters in SRG following an outbreak in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Contagious ecthyma was diagnosed based on the presented clinical signs and confirmatory diagnosis via molecular technique, polymerase chain reaction. The affected goats were successfully managed through scrapping, cleaning and disinfecting the scabby lesions. Subsequently, broad spectrum antibiotics and multivitamin injections were administered. In conclusion, the observed clinicopathological changes in SRG were suggestive of an ongoing disease, marked stress and polycythaemia which were associated features of Orf disease in small ruminants.</p> Y. S. Baraya M. B. Bello N. Lawal U. G. Rambo A. Aliyu A. A. Raji ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 10 14 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i12445 The Impact of Supportive Teacher-Student Relationships on Academic Performance <p>In my previous research findings, one of the themes on the impact of positive teacher-student relationships revealed that healthy relationships promote academic performance. To deepen the findings, the researcher conducted a mixed methods research design. The inferential correlation analysis was carried out for this qualitative survey. Altogether, 100 students and 40 teachers from various schools participated in this data collection under Samdrup Jongkhar District. The study on supportive teacher-student relationships revealed that it improves student engagement and motivation during class. Children participate more and become open and friendly with the teacher. The supportive teacher-student relationships motivate and create a fulfilling learning environment. They take ownership of their tasks and build learning curiosity which is the engine of learning.</p> <p>For the qualitative interview study, the sample consisted of 40 teachers and 30 secondary school students. The data were collected through the use of semi-structured interviews and transcribed and analyzed using a thematic approach. This qualitative study revealed that supportive teacher-student relationships help students to become more interactive, improve their approachability, and boost attachment. The healthy teacher-student relationship nurtures love, cultivates respect, and fosters a sense of security. Children love the subject taught by teachers who have healthy relationships with them and ultimately enhance their academic performance. Teachers get more time for lesson preparation and assessment. They give consistent feedback and pay more attention to all the individuals in the class since they do not waste their time correcting the student’s disruptive behaviours resulting in negative teacher-student relationships.</p> Sherub Gyeltshen Nima Gyeltshen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-19 2022-11-19 15 34 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i12446 The ALS-IEC Theory and Its Effect on Persons Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus <p>The visible problems among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus are insufficiency of HIV information about the impact it will bring into their lives and non-compliance to treatment due to fear of disclosure. The need to enhance information about the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through extensive health teaching and exemplary education modeling may help persons living with HIV live with dignity and hope as children of God. The purpose of the study is to discover what substantive theory can be used to unearth variables such as active involvement in the society, life change advocacy, life promotion and dignity, one finds oneself, sensitivity to one’s knowledge needs, and accountability and commitment to be safe which led to the development of “all loving support-information, education, and counselling theory. A mixed method embedded experimental design was used in testing the theory through a double-blind approach that quantified the grounded explored experiences of the participants. The qualitative participants were 20 in focus group discussion and the quantitative participants were 30 college students living with HIV, 18-24 years old, male, Christian, and currently enrolled in a college or university in the Davao region excluding those who are sick and admitted to the hospital. Pretest findings revealed that the participants were moderately informed about facts on HIV and moderately followed the course of treatment but after a series of tests (post-test after two weeks, after one month, and after two months), reported that they were totally informed about the facts on HIV and will strictly adhere to the therapy. The pretest and post-test scores on the level of awareness and medical compliance showed significant differences after a series of tests. Thus, the application of ALS-IEC theory is effective among persons living with HIV in assessing HIV awareness and drug adherence encompassing bio-psycho-sexual-social-cultural-spiritual domains. Continued use of the personalized health assessment will also offer a learning opportunity (information) through reading (education) and nurse-delivered counselling as extended care after HIV screening counseling will address the immediate needs of clients.</p> Anna Liza Allosa-Saus Letty G. Kuan Corazon B. de La Peña Samuel F. Migallos Elsie A. Tee Flordeliza C. Posadas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-25 2022-11-25 35 48 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i12447 Application of Discrete-time, Right Censored Survival and Unbalanced Three-stage Hierarchical Designs in Modeling Chronic Diseases among the University Students of Kenya <p>The percentage of university students currently nursing chronic diseases including but not limited to depression, HIV/AIDs, asthma, stroke and chronic kidney diseases, is alarming, and for a long time, these students are ever thought to be healthy. However, research shows otherwise with up to 30% of the students nursing the diseases. Previous research worldwide shows that up to 30% of university students can be infected at a given time. This research aimed to investigate the issues concerning chronic diseases among university students in Kenya. The specific objectives included estimation of the percentage of students currently suffering from the diseases, determining their effects and factors associated with them. The mixed-study design was applied. Random sampling was done among students in two selected universities in Kenya and a questionnaire was used in data collection. 739 students responded to the research questions. Minitab, SPSS and R software were involved in data management for comparison purpose, especially for statistically significant results. From the analysis, currently, there are approximately 14.6% of the students are suffering from chronic diseases, and this proportion is significant (p-value&lt;0.0001). Among the infected, 60.19% were females and the rest were males. Among the sick, only 43.52% have let the university clinics know about their conditions while more than 50% have concealed the vital information. The factors ‘family history’, ‘involvement in drugs’, ‘adopted life-styles’ and ‘extreme poverty’ were found to be significantly associated with chronic diseases among the students. On the effects, the diseases were found to be negatively affecting the aspects of life of the infected students. Survival of the students was found to be having a mean and median survival time of 29.9472 and 30.27 years respectively. It is concluded that there is need for intervention among university students as 14.6% is not a number to be ignored. It is recommended that the stakeholders to come together and arrest the situation before things slip out of hand.</p> Wangui Patrick Mwangi Ayubu Anapapa Julius Koech ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 49 63 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i12448 Can Noninvasive Tests Substitute Endoscopy for Diagnosis of Colonic Diseases? <p><strong>Background and Aims:</strong> Fecal calprotectin was approved as a non-invasive screening tool for organic colonic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate fecal calprotectin and inflammatory indices as non-invasive markers for diagnosing and differentiating inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) in comparison to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in a cohort of Egyptian patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this cross-sectional study, fecal calprotectin, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and systemic inflammatory index (SII) were assessed in 40 IBD patients, 40 CRC patients, and 20 IBS patients.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fecal calprotectin was significantly higher in IBD and CRC groups compared to IBS control group (P= 0.018 and 0.022 respectively), with no significant difference between IBD and CRC groups. PLR, NLR and SII showed no significant differences between the 3 studied groups (P= 0.469, 0.101 and 0.84 respectively). At a cut-off value 113, fecal calprotectin had the ability to differentiate CRC patients from IBS patients with 75% sensitivity and 60% specificity, while At cut-off value of 116, fecal calprotectin had the ability to differentiate IBD patients from IBS patients with 67.5% sensitivity and 65% specificity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Inflammatory indices tested in our study (PLR, NLR, SII) showed no role for the differentiation between IBD, CRC, and IBS. Fecal calprotectin should be used with caution as a primary step for screening of colonic diseases as it cannot differentiate IBD from CRC. It has only moderate sensitivity in differentiating IBD and CRC from IBS. Unfortunately, neither fecal calprotectin nor inflammatory indices can substitute endoscopy in the screening or diagnosis of IBD and CRC.</p> Mohamed Mahmoud Zaki Asem Elfert Hanan Soliman Nehad Hawash ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-03 2022-12-03 64 73 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i12449 Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak on Businesses and Markets Globally <p>On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, and its effects are still prevalent today. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic’s controversial origins and swift global dissemination, strict safeguards were put in place by governments around the world to contain instances and slow the virus' rate of spread. While the competition for limited resources overtook global trade and collaboration, tactics fractured the fundamental supporting pillars of the contemporary world’s macroeconomics and micro economics. Serious economic repercussions resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak all around the world and no nation was spared. In addition to the devastating impact on the economy, negative aftermaths were imposed upon society as a whole which drastically altered how businesses, markets, firms, and customers operated.</p> Kimberly Morton Cuthrell Sofia Ahmed Alkhatibi Alfalasi Zainab Zaki Abdulkarim Alkhamis Aditya Kejriwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-11-17 2022-11-17 1 9 10.9734/ajarr/2022/v16i12444