Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge of Physical Education Teachers in Selected Private Junior High Schools

Jeff Benedict L. Seldura

St. Joseph School-La Salle, Negros Occidental, Philippines.

Ma. Elena Y. Doruelo

University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos, Negros Occidental, Philippines.

Joel M. Bual *

University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos, Negros Occidental, Philippines.

Dennis V. Madrigal

University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos, Negros Occidental, Philippines.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aims: This assessed the technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) level of Physical Education (PE) teachers relative to educational attainment and years of teaching. Likewise, it investigated the relationship between the demographics and the teachers’ technological knowledge (TK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and content knowledge (CK). Also, it associated between the demographics and technological content knowledge (TCK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Lastly, it correlated the demographics and their TPACK.

Study Design: It utilized the quantitative design particularly the descriptive-correlational approach.

Place and Duration of Study: It was conducted among the selected private junior high school PE teachers in a highly urbanized city.

Methodology: The instrument used to measure the teachers’ TPACK was a 35-item validated and reliability tested researcher-made questionnaire. It was responded using strongly agree to strongly disagree. In data analysis, mean and standard deviation analyzed the teachers’ TPACK. Meanwhile, Spearman rank correlation was used for the inferential problems.

Results: Generally, they have a high level of TPACK (M=3.68, SD=0.42). In educational attainment, bachelor’s degree (M=3.48, SD=0.43), masteral units (M=3.79, SD=0.36), and master’s degree (M=4.00, SD=0.00) rated high. Regarding the years of teaching, those 6 years and below (M=3.63, SD=0.45) and 7 years and above (M=3.78, SD=0.29) rated high. Meanwhile, there was no relationship between TK and educational attainment [rs(38)=0.288, p=0.071], and years of teaching [rs(38)=0.007, p=0.965]. Also, there was no relationship between PK and educational attainment [rs(38)=0.218, p=0.176] and years of teaching [rs(38)=0.092, p=0.574]. Moreover, there was no relationship between CK and educational attainment [rs(38)=0.255, p=0.112] and years of teaching [rs(38)=0.092, p=0.571]. Furthermore, there was no relationship between the PCK and years of teaching [rs(38)=-0.033, p=0.841]. However, a correlation with educational attainment [rs(38)=0.341, p=0.031]. There was also no correlation between TCK and years of teaching [rs(38)=-0.079, p=0.626]. However, a relationship with educational attainment [rs(38)=0.473, p=0.002]. Further, there was no correlation between TPK and years of teaching [rs(38)=0.078, p=0.632]. However, a relationship with educational attainment [rs(38)=0.359, p=0.023]. Lastly, there was no correlation between TPACK and years of teaching [rs(38)=0.148, p=0.361]. However, a relationship with educational attainment [rs(38)=0.525, p=0.001].

Conclusion: The PE teachers’ TPACK underscores the significant impact of educational qualifications on teaching expertise. It highlights the profound connection between higher education, particularly postgraduate studies, and the enhancement of educators’ TPACK proficiency. The differences in TCK between bachelor's degree holders and those pursuing advanced studies emphasize the higher education’s pivotal role in refining technological skills for PE instruction. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the strong correlation between TPACK and educational qualifications, emphasizing the importance of ongoing academic pursuits in shaping effective teaching practices in PE.

Keywords: Physical education, technological, pedagogical, content knowledge, descriptive-correlational, Philippine private schools


How to Cite

Seldura , J. B. L., Doruelo , M. E. Y., Bual , J. M., & Madrigal , D. V. (2024). Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge of Physical Education Teachers in Selected Private Junior High Schools. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 18(5), 58–71. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajarr/2024/v18i5632

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Shulman LS. Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational researcher. 1986;15(2):4-14. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015002004

Mishra P, Koehler MJ. Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers college record. 2006;108(6):1017-54. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x

Goradia T. Role of educational technologies utilizing the TPACK framework and 21st century pedagogies: Academics' perspectives. IAFOR Journal of Education. 2018;6(3):43-61. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.22492/ije.6.3.03

Department of Education (DepEd). K to 12 curriculum guide in physical education; 2016. Avaialble:http://depedbohol.org/v2/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/PE-CG.pdf

Llego J. Demographic influence on emotional intelligence of science technology and engineering teachers in region 1 Philippines. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR). 2017; 3(3):1075-83. Avaialble:https://ssrn.com/abstract=2937693

Ibañez WT. Teaching in the new normal: Voices of physical education teachers. Multicultural Education. 2022;8(5). Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6585449

Batac KI, Baquiran JA, Agaton CB. qualitative content analysis of teachers' perceptions and experiences in using blended learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2021;20(6):225-43. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.20.6.12

Baber H. Social interaction and effectiveness of the online learning–A moderating role of maintaining social distance during the pandemic COVID-19. Asian Education and Development Studies. 2022;11(1):159-71. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-09-2020-0209

Cahapay MB, Anoba JL. Technological pedagogical knowledge self-efficacy and continuance intention of Philippine teachers in remote education amid COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Pedagogical Research. 2021;5(3):68-79. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.33902/JPR.2021370614

Bingölbali A, Yavuz C. Examination of the opinions of physical education and sports teachers working in private schools on the approach of education, teaching and management. Journal of Educational Issues. 2021;7(2):355-74. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.5296/jei.v7i2.19128

Margario BM, Solidarios JT, Bual JM. Learning environment, motivation, and challenges of junior high students under physical education modular instruction. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies. 2022:47-59. Avaialble:10.9734/AJESS/2022/v31i430757

Yildiz M, Karakullukçu ÖF. Physical education teachers' using of teaching styles levels and their perceptions towards styles in public and private schools in Turkey. World Journal of Education. 2019;9(4):41-8. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v9n4p41

Kahan D, McKenzie TL. Correlates of private secondary schools meeting physical education guidelines. Journal of School Health. 2018;88(7):508-15. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12633

Duran A. Private school teachers perceptions of students' daily physical activity (Doctoral dissertation, Grand Canyon University); 2022. Avaialble:https://www.proquest.com/openview/8fd7fef9ae89353815918a733f96915d/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y

Belleza SS, Ompoc RD, Vestil CF. Challenges of PE teachers to educational technologies in new normal: The changing role of teachers. International Journal of Research Publications. 2021;86(1): 74-81. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.47119/ijrp1008611020212320

Esman EN, Bual JM, Madrigal DV. Twenty-first century teaching skills and job satisfaction of public senior high school teachers in Central Philippines. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports. 2023;17(7):46-62. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajarr/2023/v17i7493

Tanucan JC. Pedagogical praxis of millennial teachers in mainstreamed physical education. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2019;7(1):54-62. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.21474/ijar01/8361

Poblador SA, Tagare RL. K to 12 transition in action: Threading the opportunities and challenges on the implementation of senior high school sports track in Southern Philippines. Edu Sportivo: Indonesian Journal of Physical Education. 2022;3(1):65-76. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.25299/es:ijope.2022.vol3(1).8467

Bual JM, Madrigal DV. Correlating the school climate and teacher leadership of Catholic schools in Antique, Philippines. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies. 2021;21(4):22-34. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.9734/AJESS/2021/v21i430514

Cortes ST, Pineda HA, Jugar RR. Alignment of the revised secondary teacher education curriculum and the hiring qualifications for SHS teachers in the Philippines: A theoretical gap analysis. Journal of Education Naresuan University. 2019;24(1):1-9. Avaialble:https://so06.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/edujournal_nu/article/view/192515

Villaceran DA, Linaugo JD, Bual JM. Interest and academic performance in physics of grade 10 students amidst pandemic. Journal of Education Research and Evaluation. 2024;8(1). Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.23887/jere.v8i1.74728

Diaz RM, Bual JM, Madrigal DV. Proficiency level and challenges of students in disciplines and ideas in the social sciences. Journal of Education Research and Evaluation. 2024;8(1). Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.23887/jere.v8i1.74730

Alic AK, Bual JM. Readings in Philippine history: Course review, best practices, and challenges among higher education institutions. Philippine Social Science Journal. 2021;4(4):91-103. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.52006/main.v4i4.424

Pahilanga LL, Bual JM, Madrigal DV. Life skills of Filipino emerging adults of a Catholic higher education institution in Central Philippines. Indonesian Journal Of Educational Research and Review. 2023;6(1) Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.23887/ijerr.v6i1.59582

Gonzales AL. Exploring technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) and self-efficacy belief of senior high school biology teachers in Batangas City. The Palawan Scientist. 2018;10(1):29-47.

Capacete MP. Technology integration practices of secondary English teachers in the Philippines: A study towards framework development. Avaialble:https://animorepository.dlsu.edu.ph/etdm_deal/6/

Mercado MG, Ibarra FP. ICT-Pedagogy integration in elementary classrooms: Unpacking the pre-service teachers’ TPACK. Indonesian Research Journal in Education| IRJE|. 2019;29-56. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.22437/irje.v3i1.6506

Morales MP, Avilla R, Sarmiento C, Elipane L, Palisoc C, Palomar B, Ayuste TO, Butron B. Experiences and practices of STEM teachers through the lens of TPACK. Journal of Turkish Science Education. 2022;19(1):237-56. Avaialble:https://www.tused.org/index.php/tused/article/view/1750

Becker GS. Human capital revisited. InHuman capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis with special reference to education, third edition 1994 Jan 1 (pp. 15-28). The University of Chicago Press. Avaialble:https://www.nber.org/system/files/chapters/c11229/c11229.pdf

Kolb AY, Kolb DA. Experiential learning theory as a guide for experiential educators in higher education. Experiential Learning & Teaching in Higher Education. 2017;1(1):7-44. Avaialble:https://nsuworks.nova.edu/elthe/vol1/iss1/7

Ibrohim I, Purwaningsih E, Munzil M, Hidayanto E, Sudrajat AK, Saefi M, bin Hassan Z. Possible links between Indonesian science teacher’s TPACK perception and demographic factors: Self-reported survey. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. 2022;18(9):em2146. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/12282

Petalla MB. Exploring the digital transformation of teaching-learning experiences of the baby boomer generation. Philippine Social Science Journal. 2022;5(1):90-6. Avaialble:https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.52006/main.v5i1.471

McIntyre NA, Mainhard MT, Klassen RM. Are you looking to teach? Cultural, temporal and dynamic insights into expert teacher gaze. Learning and Instruction. 2017;49:41-53. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.12.005

Tafazoli D, Parra ME, Abril CA. Computer literacy: Sine qua non for digital age of language learning & teaching. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 2017;7(9):716. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0709.02

Li S, Liu Y, Su YS. Differential analysis of teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) abilities according to teaching stages and educational levels. Sustainability. 2022;14(12):7176. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127176

Gore J, Rosser B, Jaremus F, Miller A, Harris J. Fresh evidence on the relationship between years of experience and teaching quality. The Australian Educational Researcher. 2023;1-24. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-023-00612-0

Mensah E, Ansah SA. Christian religious studies teachers’ content knowledge: Do areas of specialisation, teaching experience, professional qualification and academic qualification matter?. African Journal of Empirical Research. 2023;4(2):110-8. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.51867/ajernet.4.2.14

Mailizar M, Hidayat M, Artika W. The effect of demographic variables on mathematics teachers’ TPACK: Indonesian context. InJournal of Physics: Conference Series 2021;1882(1):012041. IOP Publishing. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1882/1/012041

Subali B, Handoyo LD. The mastery of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge among indonesian biology teachers. European Journal of Educational Research. 2021;10(3):1063-73. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.10.3.1063

Koyuncuoglu O. An investigation of graduate students’ Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK). International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology. 2021;9(2):299-313. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.46328/ijemst.1446

Ozudogru M, Ozudogru F. Technological pedagogical content knowledge of mathematics teachers and the effect of demographic variables. Contemporary educational technology. 2019;10(1):1-24. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.30935/cet.512515

Saltan F, Arslan K. A comparison of in-service and pre-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge self-confidence. Cogent Education. 2017;4(1):1311501. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2017.1311501

Kini T, Podolsky A. Does Teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? a Review of the research. Learning Policy Institute; 2016. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.54300/625.642

Agustini K, Santyasa IW, Ratminingsih NM. Analysis of competence on “TPACK”: 21st century teacher professional development. InJournal of Physics: Conference Series 2019;1387(1):012035. IOP Publishing. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1387/1/012035

McDonald J. Examination of Teachers’ Perceived Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Its Relationship to Lesson Design. Avaialble:https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations/7408/

Molise H. The Relationships between experience, qualification and subject specialization and content knowledge mastery of economic and management sciences teachers: A case of accounting teaching. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2021;20(8):36-49. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.20.8.3

Hughes AJ. Measuring metacognitive awareness: Applying multiple, triangulated, and mixed-methods approaches for an encompassing measure of metacognitive awareness. Journal of Technology Education. 2019;30(2):3. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.21061/jte.v30i2.a.1

De Miranda MA. Pedagogical content knowledge for technology education. Handbook of technology education. 2018;685-98.

Antony MK, Subali B, Pradana SP, Hapsari N, Astuti FE. Teacher’s TPACK profile: The affect of teacher qualification and teaching experience. InJournal of Physics: Conference Series 2019;1397(1):012054. IOP Publishing. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1397/1/012054

Zhen L. A Survey of physical education teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge. In2021 International Conference on Information Technology and Contemporary Sports (TCS) 2021;30-33. IEEE. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.1109/tcs52929.2021.00014

Mapulanga T, Nshogoza G, Yaw A. Teachers’ perceived enacted pedagogical content knowledge in biology at selected secondary schools in Lusaka. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. 2022;21(10):418-35. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.21.10.23

Mohamad FS. Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and the teaching of science: Determiners for professional development. Studies of Applied Economics. 2021;39(1). Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.25115/eea.v39i1.4272

Idrus RL, Baharullah B, Saleh SF. Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) profile elementary school teachers on geometry materials judging from teaching experience. buana pendidikan: Jurnal fakultas keguruan dan ilmu pendidikan unipa surabaya. 2022;18(2):224-34. Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.36456/bp.vol18.no2.a5422

Ismail RA, Arshad R, Abas Z. Can teachers’ age and experience influence teacher effectiveness in HOTS. International Journal of Advanced Studies in Social Science and Innovation. 2018;2(1). Avaialble:https://doi.org/10.30690/ijassi.21.11