Review of Higher Education, Gender Enrolment, Inclusive Education, Government Funding, and Graduate Marketability in Rwanda and Tanzania

Anagrolia Faustino *

University Institute of Teachers Training and Research, Chandigarh University, Gharuan, India.

Mussa S. Muneja

Faculty of Theology, University of Arusha, Meru, Tanzania.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This study sought to establish the historical development of higher education in Rwanda compared to other East African countries, especially Tanzania. The article was geared towards finding out how higher education has developed in both Rwanda and Tanzania in terms of gender and enrolment, inclusive education, government funding, and the marketability of graduates. The review uses Google Scholar to get the information from the different works from different countries regarding the subject. The findings indicated that there is no equity in gender or enrolment in both Tanzania and Rwanda. In both countries, there is a need to encourage females to access higher education without fearing some of the barriers, like getting pregnant and the patriarchal system. Funding students in higher education institutions is a problem for both countries. The need for inclusive education did not suit the government well enough; hence, parents decided to leave their children unschooled. Fresh graduates are advised to be self-employed or develop their qualifications in the education sector to make them more marketable.

Keywords: Education, Graduates, enrolment, gender, inclusive, marketability

How to Cite

Faustino, A., & Muneja , M. S. (2023). Review of Higher Education, Gender Enrolment, Inclusive Education, Government Funding, and Graduate Marketability in Rwanda and Tanzania. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 17(11), 1–9.


Download data is not yet available.


Republic of rwanda ministry of education. Girls’ Education Policy; 2008.

Newton C. Chron; 2019. Retrieved from Chron Web Site: https://Smallbusiness.Chron.Com/Product-Marketability-17351.Html

Johnson MP. Women's access to higher education In Tanzania: A qualitative study. Lowa Research Journal. 2011;1-20.

Asaba S.. Experience: The dilemma of a fresh graduates; 2015, July 22 Education.

Retrieved From The New Times, Rwanda's Leading Daily: www.Newtimes.Co.Rw/ Section/Reade/190827

Tusiime M, Otara A, Kaleeba A, Kaviira A, Tsinda A. Gender differences In enrollment And graduation rates In private and public higher learning institution In Rwanda. Rwanda Journal. 2017;5-32. ISSN 2305-2678 (Print; ISSN 2305-5944 (Online)

TCU. Higher education students admission, enrolment and graduation statistics. Dar es salaam: 7 Magogoni Street; 2018.

Karangwa E. Towards inclusive education In Rwanda: An assessment of the socio-political contributors to inclusive education development. Rwandan Journal of Education. 2013;2:46-58.

Talley L, Brintnell ES. Scoping the barriers to implementing policies forinclusive education in Rwanda: An occupational therapy opportunity. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 2015;1-12.

Balsera MR. Does the human capital discourse promote or hinder the right to education? The case of girls, orphans and vulnerable children in Rwanda. Journal Of International Development. 2011;275-284.

Polat F. Inclusion In education: A step towards social justice. International Journal of Education Development. 2010;50-58.

Elder BC. Right to inclusive education for students with disabilities In Kenya. Journal of International Special Needs Education. 2015;18-28.

Nuwagaba A. Evaluation of current higher education finding,model In Rwanda using higher education student loans department (HESLD-REB) as a case study. Journal of Economics And Internation Finance. 2013;5:72-95.

Nyahende VR. The success of student loans in financing higher education In Tanzania. Higher Education Studies. 2013;3:47-61.

Aggarwal R, Mohammed BS, Kumar P. Technology and business incubation a proven mode to promote technology innovation and entrepreneurship In Rwanda. International Journal of Business and Public Management. 2012;47-50.

Nikusekela NE, Pallangyo EM. Analysis of supply-side factors influencing the employability of fresh higher learning graduates In Tanzania. Global Journal of Human Social Science: Economics. 2016;16:8-9.

Katundu MA, Gabamambi DM. Entrepreneurial Tendencies of Tanzanian University Graduates: Evidence from University of Dar-Es-Salaam. Europen Academic Research. 2014;5525-5531.