Pre-harvest Losses of Musa spp. and Food Security Situation of Households in Sub-Sahara Africa
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports,
Musa spp. generally known as bananas and plantains are staples to many in Africa. However, pre-harvest losses of these crops for the past two decades are alarming. The paper reveals that pre-harvest losses of bananas and plantains since 2002 ranges from 20.7-100% in Sub-Sahara Africa with most countries recording 50% losses and above. The paper further categorised the causes of pre-harvest losses of Musa spp. into natural, agronomic, biotic and human-induced constraints. Among these categories, human-induced constraints are seen to cause the highest pre-harvest losses as they influence the occurrence of other constraints. Some of the primary natural and agronomic constraints are storm, drought, and irregular/mixed cropping and over dependent on sward suckers and rainfall respectively. Fusarium wilt, Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), banana bunchy top disease, black sigatoka and cigar-end rot are some of the biotic constraints reported in most producing countries in the region. Pests such as banana weevils, nematodes, mealy-bugs and white grubs are equally identified as potential causes of Musa pre-harvest losses while some human-induced constraints are farmer-grazier conflicts, weak extension system and poor inputs. The paper revealed that in Rwanda, pre-harvest losses of bananas led to an increase (14-64%) of the number of households who were unable to eat their preferred meal in all the months of the year while in Tanzania, the food situation of 53.8% of the households were reported to be very bad. Meanwhile in Cameroon, insufficient food was reported in 81% of the producing households in Boyo Division. It is therefore, concluded that in order to minimise pre-harvest losses and enhance the food security status of the producers and consumers in the region, proper propping, pruning, crop rotation and above all integrated pest and disease management techniques should be practiced while Musa research centres should be decentralising, extension delivery systems revisited and disease-free planting materials provided to the farmers.
- Musa spp
- pre-harvest losses
- food security and Sub-Sahara Africa
How to Cite
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). Trade and market: Banana facts and figures. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United State; 2019. Available:http;//www.fao.org/economic/est/est-commodities/bananas/bananafacts/en/#. XjQQDB7TU0N. Accessed on 31st January, 2020.
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). Banana market review: Preliminary results for 2018. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome. 2018;12.
Olumba CC, Onunka CN. Banana and plantain in West Africa: Production and marketing. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition, and development. 2020;20(2):15474-15489.
Mbide CM, Doutrelepont H, Vrydaghs L, Swennen RL, Swennen RJ, Beeckam H, Langhe E, Maret P. The initial history of bananas in Africa. A reply to Jan Vansina, Azania, 2003, Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa. 2005;40(1):128-135.
Cauthen J, Jones D, Gugerty MK, Anderson CL. Banana and plantain value chain: West Africa EPAR Brief No. 239. Prepared for the Agricultural Policy Team of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 2013;25.
Ayanwale AB, Fatunbi AO, Ojo M. Innovation opportunities in plantain production in Nigeria. Guide Book 1. Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA), Accra Ghana. 2016;40.
Lorenzen J, Tenkouano A, Bandyopadhyay R, Vroh B, Coyne D, Tripathi L. Overview of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) improvement in Africa: Past and future. Acta horticulturae. 2010;879(879):595- 604.
UNCTAD INFOCOMM. Banana. An INFOCOMM commodity profile: UNCTAD trust fund on market information on agricultural commodities. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, New York and Geneva. 2016;17.
Tenkouano A, Lamien N, Agogbua J, Amah D, Swennen R, Traore S. Ortiz R. Promising high-yielding tetraploid plantain-bred hybrids in West Africa. International Journal of Agronomy. 2019;1- 8.
Nemecková A, Christelová P, Cížková J, Nyine M, et al. Molecular and cytogenetic study of east african highland banana. Frontiers in Plant Sciences. 2018;9(1371):1-13.
Alabi MO. Nutrition: Processing and utilization of selected food crops in Nigeria. Gboko: Peace House Press. 2013;186.
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). Trade and market: Banana facts and figures. Banana Cultivars. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United State; 2020a. Available:http;//www.fao.org/economic/est/est-commodities/bananas/bananafacts/en/#. XjQQDB7TU0N. Accessed on 6th November, 2020.
Whitney CW, Mukiibi E, Nakaketo C, Gebauer J, Rietveld A, Kehlenbeck K. Addressing Post-harvest losses during traditional banana fermentation for increased food security in Southwest Uganda. Abstract presented at Tropentag 2016: Soliarity in a competing world-fair use of resources; 2016;1
Rwubatse B, Kitinoja L, Mukantwali C, Kabayiza E, Chahine-Tsouvalaki H, Vasanthakaalam H, Wheeler L. Postharvest loss assessment of green bananas in Rwanda. Feed the Future. The U.S Government’s Global Hunger & Food Security Initiative. 2018;73.
Akinyemi SOS, Aiyelaagbe IOO, Akyeampong E. Plantain (Musa spp.) cultivation in Nigeria: A review of its production, marketing and research in the last two decades. Acta Horticulturae. 2010;879:211-218
Nkwain KT. Assessment of banana losses and the wellbeing of farmers in Boyo Division, Cameroon. Doctoral Thesis, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria. 2022;296.
Muchuruza YP, Melchior HR. The effects of banana xanthomonas wilt (Bxw) on food security and the people's livelihood: The case of nshamba and rubale divisions in kagera region, Tanzania. KADETFU and CDI organizations, Tanzania. 2013;44.
Tchango JT, Bikoï A, Achard R, Escalant JV, Ngalani JA. Plantain: post-harvest operations. centre de recherches regionales sur bananiers et plantains, Cameroon (CRBP). 1999;60.
Scot CN, Ploetz RC, Kepler AK. Musa species (banana and plantain): Musaceae (banana family). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. 2006;33. Available:www.traditionaltree.org. Accessed on 20th May, 2020.
Okolle JN, Fansi GH, Lombi FM, Lang PS, Loubana PM. Banana etomological research in Cameroon: How far and what next? African Journal of Plant Science Biotechnology. 2009;3(1):1-19.
Nayar NM. The bananas: Botany, origin, dispersal. In Jules J. (ed). Horticultural Reviews. 2010;36:117-164.
Global Strategy Working Papers (GSWP). Improving methods for estimating post-harvest losses: A Review of the methods for estimating grain post harvest losses. Working Paper No. 2. 2015;63.
Oino PG, Kareithi J, Sorre B. The effects of pre-harvest practices on food loss in gucha sub county, Kisii County, Kenya. International Journal of Social Sciences and Management Research. 2017;3(8):26-34.
Verma M, Plaisier C, Wagenberg CPAV, Achterbosch T. A systems approach to food loss and solutions: Understanding practices, causes, and indicators. Journal of Sustainability. 2019;11(579):1- 22.
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). An introduction to the basic concepts of food security: Food Security Information for Action- Practical Guide. EC-FAO Food Security Programme; 2008. Available:www.foodsec.org/docs/concepts_guide.pdf
Maetz M. Food Security-definition and drivers; 2011. Available:www.hungerexplained.org.
Accessed on 13th January, 2022.
Peng W, Berry EM. The concept of food security. In: Ferranti, P., Berry, E.M., Anderson, J.R. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability, Elsevier. 2019;2:1–7.
Pierrot J, Achard R, Temple L, Abadie C, Fogain R. Déterminants de la production de plantain dans le sud-ouest du Cameroun: Intérêt d’un observatoire, Fruits. 2002;57(2):75–85.
Hauser S, Amougou D. Plantain (Musa spp.) Cropping systems of Southern Cameroon. Acta Horticulturae. 2010;879:495-508.
Dépigny S, Wils ED, Tixier P, Keng MN, Cilas C, Lescot T, Jagore P. Plantain productivity: Insights from Cameroonian cropping systems. Agricultural Systems. 2019;168:1–10.
African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF). Feasibility study on technologies for improving banana for resistance against bacterial wilt in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: African Agricultural Technology Foundation. 2009;92.
Bantayehu M, Alemayehu M, Abera M, Bizuayehu S. Determinants and extent of pre- and postharvest losses of fruits in North-Western Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research. 2018;5(4):68-75.
Okonya JS, Ocimati W, Nduwayezu A, Kantungeko D, Niko N, et al. Farmer reported pest and disease impacts on root, tuber, and banana crops and livelihoods in Rwanda and Burundi. Sustainability. 2019; 11(1592):1-20.
Smallholder Horticulture Empowerment & Promotion Project for Local and Up-Scaling (SHEP PLUS). (eds). Banana Production. MOALF/SHEP PLUS, Kenya. 2019;31.
Chabi MC, Dassou AG, Dossou-Aminon I, Ogouchoro D, Aman BO, Dansi A. Banana and plantain production systems in Benin: ethnobotanical investigation, varietal diversity, pests, and implications for better production. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2018;14(78):1-18.
Faïnou M, Ewedje EEBK, Adeoti K, Djedatin GL, et al. Diversity of local varieties of banana and plantain cultivated in Benin. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2018;10(12):497-509.
Kainga PE. Empirical review of problems and prospects of banana (Musa sapientum L) and plantain (Musa paradisiaca L) production enterprises. Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Sciences. 2013;2(4):181-186.
Jacobsen K, Fogain R, Mouassom H, De Waele D. Musa-based cropping systems of the Cameroon highlands: a case study of the West and Northwest provinces of Cameroon, with emphasis on nematodes. Fruits. 2004;59(5):311–318.
Hailu M, Workneh TS, Belew D. Review on postharvest technology of banana fruit. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013;12(7):635-647.
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). Desert locust upsurge – Progress report on the response in the Greater Horn of Africa and Yemen (January–April 2020). Rome; 2020b.
Dimelu MU. Involvement of farm households in banana and plantain production in aguata agricultural zone of Anambra State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension. 2015;19 (1):105-116.
Traoré S, Kobenan K, Koné D, Gnonhouri P, Yao NT, Aké S. Distribution of Mycosphaerella spp. diseases on banana in Côte d'Ivoire. In M. Mwangi (ed), Contributions of agricultural sciences towards achieving the Millenium Development Goals. Nairobi, Kenya, FaCT Publishing. 2010;1–160.
Mikwamba K, Dessein J, Kambewa D. Fighting banana bunchy top disease in Southern Malawi. The interface of knowledge systems and dynamics in a development arena. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 2019;10:1-20.
Brottem L. The growing complexity of farmer-herder conflict in West and Central Africa. Africa Security Brief No. 39, Africa Center for Strategic Studies; 2021.
Bobbo MY, Tsi AE. The influence of farmer-grazier conflicts on food security in the North West region of Cameroon: the case of Mezam Division. International Journal of Horticulture, Agriculture and Food Science. 2020;4(6):205-215.
Growing Africa’s Agriculture (AGRA). Extension strategies: AGRA’s private sector led-approach to extension. The Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa, Kenya; 2019.
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and Africa Union Commission (AUC). Africa Regional Overview of Food Security and Nutrition 2019. Accra; 2020. Available:https://doi.org/10.4060/CA7343EN
Nkwain TK, Fatty KML. Revisiting radio, newspapers and mobile phones as mediums of enhancing agricultural productivity: A review. Asian Journal of Language, Literature and Culture Studies. 2019;2(3):1-6.
Nkuba J, Tinzaara W, Night G, Niko N, Jogo W, Ndyetabula I, Karamura E. Adverse impact of banana xanthomonas wilt on farmers’ livelihoods in Eastern and Central Africa. African Journal of Plant Science. 2015;9(7):279-286.
Abstract View: 126 times
PDF Download: 46 times