Characterization of Chemical Composition of Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaf Ethyl Acetate Fraction
Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports,
Aims: To characterize the chemical composition of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf ethyl acetate fraction.
Methodology: Quantitative phytochemical composition was assessed using gas chromatography fitted with flame ionization detector (GC-FID), while chemical characterization was via gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis. The mass spectra peaks were matched with those found in the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) spectral database.
Results: Results revealed a rich presence of proanthocyanin, rutin, quinine, flavan-3-ol, anthocyanin, lunamarin, sapogenin, phenol, flavonones, steroids, epicatechin, kaempferol, phytate, oxalate, resveratol, catechin, flavones, tannin, ribalinidine, naringin, and spartein in varying proportion in B. pinnatum leaves ethylacetate fractions. GC-MS analysis of the fractions revealed the presence of at least 50 constituents. The major constituents were Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (24.88%), 10,13-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (29.69%), Tetracosanoic acid, methyl ester (7.84%), Methyl stearate (6.97%), cis-Methyl 11-eicosenoate (6.26%), Methyl 18-methylnonadecanoate (4.99%), Docosanoic acid, methyl ester (3.71%) and 4,7-Methano-1H-indene, octahydro- (2.43%).
Conclusion: This rich array of chemical compounds presents B. pinnatum leaves as an important source of potential lead compounds with biological and pharmacological benefits and hence a potential candidate for drug discovery.
- methyl esters
- medicinal plant
- Bryophyllum pinnatum
How to Cite
Singh MK, Singh SK, Singh AV, Verma H, Singh PP, Kumar AJ. Phytochemicals: Intellectual property rights, Editor(s): Prakash B. Functional and Preservative Properties of Phytochemicals, Academic Press. 2020;363-375.
Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L, Patch CS, Sullivan DR, Fenech M. et al. Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future. The Medical journal of Australia. 2006;185(S4):S1–S24.
Swain T. Plants in the development of modern medicine. Harvard University Press; 1968.
Gupta SS. Prospect and prospective of natural plants products in medicine. Indian Pharmacol. 1994;26:1-12.
Okigbo RN, Mmeka EC. An Appraisal of Phytomedicine in Africa’ KMITL Science and Technology Journal. 2006;6(2):83–94.
Fokunang CN, Ndikum V, Tabi OY, Jiofack RB, Ngameni B, Guedje NM, et al. Traditional medicine: past, present and future research and development prospects and integration in the National Health System of Cameroon.African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines. 2011;8(3);284–295.
Boots AW, Haenen GR, Bast A. Health effects of quercetin: From antioxidant to nutraceutical. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2008;585:325–337.
Jain VC, Patel NM, Shah DP, Patel PK. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Bryophyllum calycinum salisb leaf. Pharmacologyonline. 2010;1:393-405.
Ursula M, Nathalie P, Lukas R, Roland Z. Intravenous tocolysis with Bryophyllum pinnatum is better tolerated than betaagonist application. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2006;124:168–172.
Ghasi SE, Achukwu PU, Onyeanusi J. Assessment of the medical benefit in the folkloric use of Bryophyllum Pinnatum leaves among the Igbos of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2011;5(1):83-92.
Onwuliri VA, Anekwe GE. Identification of the presence of prostaglandins A and E in the stem of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lim) using chromatographic and infra-red methods. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research. 1997;13;45-49.
Kamboj A, Saluja AK. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile, A review. Pharmacognosy Review. 2009;3:364-74.
Ofokansi KC, Esimone CO, Anele CK. Evaluation of the in vitro combined antibacterial effect of the leaves extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Fam: crassulaceae) and Ocimum gratissimum (Fam: labiatae). Plant Product Research Journal. 2005; 9:23-27.
Okwu DE. Nigerian medicinal plant 11. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology. 2007;1(1):97-102.
Bagul MS, Srinivasa H, Anandjiwala S, Rajani M. Phytochemical evaluation and free radical scavenging activity of Nagakesara (Stamen of Mesua ferrea Linn, Var. Ferrea). Indian drugs. 2006;43:665-670.
Harlalka GV, Patil CR. Protective effect of Kalanchoe pinnata pers. (Crassulaceae) on Gentamicine induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaccology. 2007;39(4):201-205.
Yadav NP, Dixit VK. Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Pers, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2003;86:197–202.
Sharma AL, Bhot MA, Chandra N. Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract and mucilage from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz. Ancient science of life. 2014;33(4):252–258.
Onwuliri VA, Anekwe GE. Proximate and elemental composition of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lim). Medical Science Research. 1992;20:103-104.
Onwuliri VA, Anekwe GE. Amino acid composition of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lim). Med. Sci. Res. 1993a;21:507-508.
Onwuliri VA, Anekwe GE. Total lipid composition of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lim). Med. Sci. Res. 1993b;2:27-28.
Ichihara K, Fukubayashi Y. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-liquid chromatography. Journal of lipid research. 2010;51(3):635–640.
Lila MA. Anthocyanins and Human Health: An In Vitro Investigative Approach Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2004;5:306–313.
Alisi CS, Asiwe ES, Emejulu AA, Ene AC. Nwoguikpe RN. Neuroprotective and free radicals scavenging potentials of some common leaves vegetables consumed in South - Eastern Nigeria. Annual Research and Review in Biology. 2014;4(22):3345-3358.
Asiwe ES, Alisi CS, Ene CA, Alisi PN. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Aqueous Extract of Psidium guajava Leaves. FUTOJNLS. 2018;4 (1):222–234.
Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ. Paganga G. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends in Plant Science. 1997;2:152–159.
Wang SY, Lin H. Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2000;48:140–146.
Serkedjieva J, Ivancheva S. Antiherpes virus activity of extracts from the medicinal plant Geranium sanguineum L. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64:59-68.
Rui YC. Advances in pharmacological studies of silymarin. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1991;86:79 -85.
Kinsella JE, Frankel E, German B, Kanner J. Possible mechanisms for the protective role of antioxidants in wine and plant foods. Food Technol. 1993;47:85-89.
Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D, Posner BM, Ellison RC, Castelli WP. Wolf PA. Protective effect of fruits and vegetables on development of stroke in men. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995;273:1113–1117.
Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Reppanen R, Heliovaara M, Teppo L, Pukkala, E, Aroma A. Dietary flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer and other malignant neoplasms. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1997;146:223–230.
Cox BD, Whichelow MJ, Prevost AT. Seasonal consumption of salad vegetables and fresh fruit in relation to the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Public Health Nutrition, 2000;3:19–29.
Emejulu AA, Alisi CS, Asiwe ES, Igwe CU, Nwogu LA, Onwuliri VA. Renal and Hepato-Protective Effects of Irvingia gabonensis Juice on Sodium Fluoride-Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats. J Clin Toxicol. 2016;6:296.
Balasuriya N, Rupasinghe HPV. Plant flavonoids as angitensin converting enzyme inhibitors in regulation of hypertension. Funct Foods Health Dis. 2010;5.
Hussain F, Jahan N, Rahman K, Sultana B, Jamil S. "Identification of Hypotensive Biofunctional Compounds of Coriandrum sativum and Evaluation of Their Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibition Potential",Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2018;11.
Article ID: 4643736.
Kumar M, Kumar S, Kaur S. Role of ROS and COX-2/iNOS inhibition in cancer chemoprevention: A review. Phytochem. Rev. 2012;11:309–337.
Li Y, Ma CY, Qian M, Wen ZM, Jing HY, Qian DH. Butein induces cell apoptosis and inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in A549 lung cancer cells. Mol. Med. Rep. 2014;9:763–767.
Xie CH, Kang J, Chen JR, Nagarajan S, Badger TM, Wu XL. Phenolic acids are in vivo atheroprotective compounds appearing in the serum of rats after blueberry consumption. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2011;59:10381–10387.
Kloypan C, Jeenapongsa R, Sri-in, P, Chanta S, Dokpuang D, Tip-pyang S. Surapinit N. Stilbenoids from Gnetum macrostachyum attenuate human platelet aggregation and adhesion. Phytother. Res. 2012;26:1564–1568.
Chan J, Yuen A, Chan R, Chan SW. A review of the cardiovascular benefits and antioxidant properties of allicin. Phytother. Res. 2013;27:637–646.
Monteiro R, Azevedo I, Calhau C. Modulation of aromatase activity by diet polyphenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem, 2006;54:3535-40.
Pace-Asciak CR, Hahn S, Diamandis EP, Soleas G, Goldberg DM. The red wine phenolics trans-resveratrol and quercetin block human platelet aggregation and eicosanoic synthesis: Implications for protection against coronary heart disease. Clin Chim Acta. 1995;235:207-219.
Shanmuganayagam D, Beahm M, Osman H, Krueger C, Reed J, Folts J. Grape seed and grape skin extracts elicit a greater antiplatelet effect when used in combination than when used individually in dogs and humans. J Nutr. 2002;132(12):3592–3598.
La Casa C, Villegas I, Alarcón de la LC, Motilva V, Martín CM. Evidence for protective and antioxidant properties of rutin, a natural flavone, against ethanol induced gastric lesions. Journal of Ethno pharmacology. 2000;71:45- 53.
Kanner J, Frankel E, Granit R, German B. Kinsella JE. Natural antioxidants in grapes and wines. J Agric Food Chem. 1994;42:64-69.
Ahn J, Lee H, Kim S, Park J. Ha T. The anti-obesity effect of quercetin is mediated by the AMPK and MAPK signaling pathways. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2008;373:545–579.
Williams DJ, Edwards D, Hamernig I, Jian L, James AP. Johnson SK, Tapsell LC. Vegetables containing phytochemicals with potential anti-obesity properties: A review. Food Res. Int. 2013;52:323–333.
Dong J, Zhang X, Zhang L, Bian HX, Xu N, Bao B. Liu J. Quercetin reduces obesity-associated ATM infiltration and inflammation in mice: A mechanism including AMPK alpha 1/SIRT1. J. Lipid Res. 2014;55:363–374.
Cong Z, Meiling QI, Qinglong S, Shan Z. Ruonong Fu. Analysis of the volatile compounds in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort using HS-SPME-GCMS. J. Pharm Biomed Analysis. 2007;44:464-470.
Vinodh KS, Natarajan A, Devi K, Senthilkumar B. Chemical composition of aqueous leaf extract of Murraya Koenigii. Int J Pharm Biol Archiv. 2013;4:493– 7.
Chandrasekaran M, Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V. Antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of fatty acid methyl esters from leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum L. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmcol. Sci. 2011;15:775–780.
Yu FR, Lian XZ, Guo HY, McGuire PM, Li RD, Wang R, Yu FH. Isolation and characterization of methyl esters and derivatives from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) and their inhibitory effects on the human SGC-7901 cells. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2005;8:528–535.
Abstract View: 44 times
PDF Download: 18 times