Main Article Content
Bacterial Meningitis pathogen (BMP) causes cellular hemorrhagic sepsis, metabolic, endocrine and neurologic disorders in human systems. This burden of the disease is highest in the developing countries and especially in the immunity compromised rural populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The A. sativum bulb extracts (JEAS, EEAS and AEAS) contain valuable pharmacologically active principles for antihaemorrhagic and antibacterial properties against bacterial meningitis pathogens. It extracts were evaluated in Wistar rats to provide scientific basis for ethnomedicinal uses. The phytochemical screening was conducted using standard method prescribed. Anti-haemorrhagic activity was evaluated using sterilized blade lancet to cut 2mm long and 2mm deep in the rat groin model. The coagulative effects of time were significantly at P<0.05 reduced by the bulb extracts applied as compared to that of the control. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and tannins. The result of this study revealed that A. sativum bulb extracts possessed good secondary metabolites with bioactive principles, biological and pharmacological functions. This provide scientific basis for the plant in the management of haemorrhagic sepsis and infectious disease.
Clemetson KJ. Platelets and primary haemostasis. Thrombosis Research 2012;129(3):220-224.
Cuevas LE, Jeane I, Moleswort A, Hart CA, Savony EC, Cannor SJ. Risk mapping and early warning systems for control of meningitis in Africa. Vaccines, 2007;25:12-7.
Donnet A. Hemorrhagic septicaemia bacteria, Neurology-Neurosurgery sychiatry V. 2007;78(12):54-59.
Fattouch S, Imen B, Belguitt H. Preparation of aqueous garlic extract (AGE), Morphological and biochemical changes of salmonella hadar and fungi. International Journal of Morphology 2007;44(62):231-38.
Hackam DG, Wooward M, Newby LK, Bhatt DL, Shao M, Snuth EE, Donner A, Mamdani M, Donketis JD. European publication, pathogenesis and pathophysiology of hemorrhage, bacterial endotoxin invital organs and cerebral hemorrhagic stroke. European Journal of NeuroScience124 2011;(20):2233-42.
Kokori Bajeh Tijani, Danjuma Nuhu Muhammed, Janet I, Ejiofor, Busayo Olayinka, Abdullahi Attah Alfa. Herbominerals and antibacterial activities of allium sativum l extracts on pathogenic bacteria causing meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Infectious Diseases; 2020;3(1):1-15, Article no.AJRID.53275 ISSN: 2582-3221
Larguita PR, Gemma AR. Phytochemical screening of wellawel (Chromolaena odorata) leaves, its antimicrobial and coagulative properties. JPAIR Multidisciplinary Journal. 2008;1:(1).
Ncube NS, Afolayan AJ, Okoh AJ. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin current method and future trends. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7:1997-1806.
O’Brien KL, Watt JP, Mulholland K, Birmingham M, Henkle E, Lee E, McCall N, Moisi J, Tian S, Mangtani P. Paediatric bacterial meningitis. Lancet, Journal of Paediatric Medicine. 2009;11(11):374-398.
Oduye T. National health holistic consultancy: Garlic constituents and its organosulfur are good interactive herbs for mitigating diseases, Amelias Organics Limited; The Nation, 2011;25.
World Health Organization. Traditional Medicine, Wikipedia. 2010
Tebruegge M, Curtis N. Epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis of recurrent bacterial meningitis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2008;21(3):519- 37.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Textbook of Pharmacognosy 15th edition, Elsevier Publication Ltd. 2002;6-9.
Abdullahi Attah Alfa, Orukotan Abimbola Ayodeji, Goji Anthony Donatus Teru, Kokori Bajeh Tijani. Studies on the phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic leaf extract (ELE), ethanolic bark extract (EBE) and ethanolic root extract (ERE) of bridelia ferruginea benth (Euphorbiaceae). Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2019;2(4):1-8.
Kokori BT, Abdullahi AA, Abdullahi AS. Studies on phytochemical, nutraceutical profiles and potential medicinal values of allium sativum linn (Lilliaceae) on bacterial meningitis. International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal. 2019;13(2):1-15. Article no.INDJ.51609, ISSN: 2321-7235, NLM ID: 101632319
Mark AS, Steven HW, Craig LF. The Laboratory Rat - Blood Clotting Time. 2005;728.
Sharma C, Aneja KR. Agar well diffusion method, antimicrobial potential of Terminalia chebula retz fruit extracts. World Journal of Otorhinolaryncology. 2012;78:42- 9.
World Health Organization. Media Centre-Meningococcal meningitis, Fact Sheet. 2011
Cheesebrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. 2005;2:62-71,116-129.
Sachin VT. Ethanolic extract of A. cepa reported shorten the whole blood clotting time, plasma. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 2014;8(3):167-177.
Yoshiriro I, Hajime H. Effect of natural zeolites against pathogenic organisms spread in air. Journal of Biomedicine and Biology. 2012;3(1):114-117.
Animal Use and Care Policy. Research Policy Kogi State University, Anyigba. 2010;24-30.