Angular Photometric Analysis of the Forehead in a Nigerian Population

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Onyinye Mary Ozioko
Uche Sebastine Ozioko
Ignatius Ikemefuna Ozor
Ifeanacho Ezeteonu Abireh
Okeke Emmanuel Ikechukwu
Adaeze Hope Anike


Facial data are used to ascertain deviations from norm, biological variability, assess phenotypic traits, precise determination of facial aesthetics, design of safety equipment, correctional tools, evolutionary analysis, civil and criminal identification purposes. This study was designed to analyze the morphometric dimensions of forehead from photographs taken at varying angles.

Materials and Methods: Two-hundred Yoruba subjects (10-30 years) were photographed and the following anthropometric parameters; 90° (FH90°), forehead height at 45°Right (FH45°R), forehead height at 45°Left (FH45°L), forehead width at 90° (FW90°), forehead width at 45°right (FW45°R) and forehead width at 45°left (FW45°L) was measured. Descriptive analysis of the forehead parameters was carried out and the relationships between different parameters were tested using Pearson correlation.

Results: All measured forehead parameters in our cohort were greater in males than in females except FW45°R and FH45°R. Significant relationship was also found to exist between forehead parameters at different angles.

Conclusion: Findings from this study indicates that forehead parameters at 90°, 45° Right and 45° Left, showed sexual dimorphism and are correlated hence can be used for individualization, biological profiling, facial recognition from security cameras, planning of reconstructive and aesthetic surgery.

Forehead, facial recognition, sexual dimorphism, Yorubas.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ozioko, O. M., Ozioko, U. S., Ozor, I. I., Abireh, I. E., Ikechukwu, O. E., & Anike, A. H. (2020). Angular Photometric Analysis of the Forehead in a Nigerian Population. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 14(4), 1-7.
Original Research Article


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