Main Article Content
Background: Assessment of protein quality is aimed at determining the ability of a protein to meet up with the needs for maintenance, growth, pregnancy and lactation.
Objective: To evaluate the protein quality of complementary food made from local food blends using albino rats.
Methods: Maize, carrot, crayfish, milk and other ingredients were purchased, processed and used for the study. The maize, crayfish and carrot flours were blended in the ratio of 100:0:0, 70:25:5, 70:20:10, 70:15:15, 70:10:20 and 70:5:25 respectively. The six diets provided 10% protein for six groups of rats. The diets were fed to forty (40) weanling albino rats in a 21-day growth period and 7-days Nitrogen balance study. Milk was used as control and Nitrogen free diet was used for the estimation of endogenous nitrogen. The result generated were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 22.
Results: The result showed that over 70% of the nitrogen consumed by all the five groups of rats fed the mixed diets were absorbed and retained. Among the test diet groups, the 70:20:10 diet had the highest absorbed nitrogen (2.10 g), retained nitrogen (2.00 g), biological value (80%) and net protein utilization (77%) which was significantly different from the other groups. The 70:20:10 diet had the highest Total digestibility (94%), highest food intake (230g), weight gain (52.10%) and PER (2.7) that were comparable with the reference protein (milk) at (p>0.05). The mineral metabolism of all the rats fed the test diets were absorbed and retained.
Conclusion: The study revealed that complementary food of high protein quality and nutrient dense can be produced from blends of maize, carrot and crayfish. All the complementary food made from blends of maize, carrot and crayfish blend were of higher nutrient quality than the popular homemade complementary food made of maize alone. It is imperative that blends of local foods stuffs should be used as complementary food instead of only cereal in order to improve the nutritional status of a growing child and also curb prevalence of protein energy malnutrition that is common among under five.
Onofiok NO, Nnanyelugo DK. Weaning Foods in West Africa: Nutritonal Problems and Possible Solutions; 2007.
(Accessed end June 2009)
Ikujendola VA, Fashakin JB. The physicochemical properties of a complementary diet prepared from vegetable proteins. Journal of Food Agriculture. Environment. 2005;3(3-4): 23–26.
Onabanjo OO. Formulation and Biological Evaluation of Weaning Foods from Cassava (Manihot esculenta), soybean (Glycine max), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), Cassava leaves, and Carot (Daucus carota). University of Abeokuta, Nigeria, Ph.D Dissertation, Unpublished; 2007.
Umerah NN, Asouzu AI, Okoye JI. Protein Uptake and Utilization of Moringa olifera Leaves and Seeds Fed to Rats as a Dietary Supplement. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2019;3(7):25-36.
WHO. Turning the Tide of malnutrition. Responding to the challenge of the 21st Century; 2002.
(Accessed end May, 2010)
Igyor M A, Yusufu PA, Sengev IA. Evaluation of physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of fermented fura powder supplemented with soy. Nigerian Food Journal. 2010;28(2):454–462.
Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry, Acad. Press, NY. 1994;318-344.
FAO. Expert consultation dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition. 2011;92:1–66.
FAO/WHO. Protein quality evaluation. In: Reports of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition. Paper 51, FAO, Geneva. 1991;23-24.
“The Evolution of Corn”. Retrieved. University of Utah. Health Sciences; 2016.
Eka OU. Effect of fermentation on nutrient status of locust beans. Food Chemistry. 1980;5:305-308.
Bert V, Scott AG. Bioactive chemicals from carrot. Journal of Medicinal Food. US National Library of Medicine.” Dialect survey”. Harvard University; 2006.
Shane TA, Darren CJY. “Feral populations of the Australian Red-Claw crayfish (Cherax quadricariunatus von Martens) in water supply catchments of Singapore” Biology Invasion. 2007;9(8): 943-946.
Fetuga BL, Babatunde GM, Oyenuga VA. Composition and nutritive value of cashew nut in rats. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1973;22:678-682.
Achi OK. Traditional fermented protein condiments in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4:1612-1621.
Bolarinwa IF, Olajide JO, Oke MO, Olaniyan SA, Grace FO. Production and quality evaluation of complementary foods from malted millet, plantain and soybean blends, International Journal of Science and Engineering Research. 2016;7(5):663-674.
Aremu MO, Osinfade BG, Basu SK, Ablaku BE. Development and nutritional quality evaluation of kersting’s groundnut-ogi for African weaning diet. American Journal of Food Technology. 20116:1021-1033.
Hamad AM, Field ML. Evaluation of protein quality and available lysine of germinated and fermented cereals. Journal of Food Science. 1979;44:456-459.
Reeves PG, Nielsen FH, Fahey GC Jr. AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: Final report of the American Institute of Nutrition Ad Hoc Writing Committee on the Reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. Journal of Nutrition. 1993;123(11):1939–1951.
AOAC. Association of official analytical chemist. Official Methods of Analysis, Washington. DC.; 2010.
Ene-obong HN, Obizoba IC. Protein quality of some Nigerian traditional diets based on African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpcarpa) and Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Plant Food for Human Nutrition. 1995;48:293-309.
Obizoba IC. Composition of nutritive value of cereal-based diets supplemented with pulses. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences. 1986;7:113-118.
FAO. Expert consultation dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. FAO Food Nutrition Paper. 2011;92:1–66.
Wardlaw GM, Hampl JS, Disilvestrol RA. Protein in: Perspectives in nutrition, 6th Ed. Mc GrawHil Companies US. 2004;225252: 374.
Campbell JA, Cantor CR, Fleck A, Garfinkel D, Heinmets F, Juke TH, McLaughlan JM, Miller SA, Munro HN, Waterlow JC. Mammalian Protein Metabolism. 1969;2:391-422.
Whitney EN, Rolfes SR. Understanding nutrition, 7th Ed. West Publishing Co. NY. 1996;171-203.
Obizoba IC, Nnam NM. The effects of sprouting time on the nutritive value of two varieties of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa). Plant Food for Human Nutrition. 1992;42:319-327.
Shankar AH, Prasad AS. Zinc and immune function; the biological basis of altered resistance of infection. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1998;68:447-463
FAO. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Scientific Background Papers of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. Geneva, Switzerland. 2002; 60-63.
Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File Search Engine Online; 2016.