Main Article Content
High strength, high hardness and very tough engineering material derived from geologically occurring minerals and processed into a tool that rubs or wears off by friction is regarded as an abrasive. Abrasives are produced in different forms and shapes and they afford good opportunities for precision scraping away or machining. In this empirical paper, effort is made in establishing a case for the production of abrasive tools that are formulated with silicon carbide and aluminium oxide as catalytic raw materials. These are locally found in the researchers’ locality a place that has many geological deposits of solid minerals. At each of Ozizza, Ndibe, Kpoghirikpo and Unwana beaches, eleven samples of sand were collected at random locations from the Cross River that is flowing through Ozizza down to Unwana for physical and geochemical investigation to determine its suitability for abrasive making. Sand at the four locations were subjected to physical and geochemical investigation. Generally, the sand was physically characterized by bright colours of white, brown and yellow. Some samples at some locations contained dark specks of organic matter. From the distribution, the sand is generally of medium grade size as shown by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Geochemically by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, the oxide contents are: SiO2 (91.73%), CaO (0.045%), Al2O3 (4.24%), Fe2O3 (1.36%), TiO2 (0.21%), K2O (0.86%). The silica content (91.73%) of the sand is well above the industrial specification of 80% for sanitary ware making and suitable for the silica brick industry, for road dressing mixed with special asphalt. The physical and geochemical property results indicate that the sand is a good material for direct use in abrasive (sand paper and sand blasting).making, glass making and in the building and construction industries.
Ilesanmi MN. Geological mineralogy in Nigeria. 3rd Ed. Heinemann educational books Ltd; 2007.
Odior AO, Oyawale FA. Formulation of silicon carbide abrasives from locally sourced raw materilas in Nigeria. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering. 2011;1. WCE 2011, July 6-8, 2011. London, U. K.
[ISSN: 2078-0966 (online)]
Odunze KM. Heavey minerals in use in Nigeria. 2nd edition. Ibadan University Press; 2013.
Udden JA. Mechanical composition of clastic sediments. Geological society of America Bull. 1914;25:655-744.
Wentworth CK. A scale of grade and class terms for clastic sediments, Jour. Geology. 1922;30:377-392.
Pettjohn FJ. Sedimentary rocks, 2nd ed. Harper, New York. 1957;718.
Tucker ME. Sedimentary petrology an introduction. BlackWell Scientific Publications. 1981;252.
Collins L, Fox RA. Ed. Aggregate sand, gravel and crushed rock aggregates for construction purposes. Geological Society of Engineering. Geology special Publication; 1985.
Gutt W. Aggregates for waste materials. Buildings Research Station Current Paper. 1972;14/720.
Gutt W, Nurse RW. The phase composition of Portland cement clinker. Current paper 96/74, Building. Research. Establishment, Watford, U.K; 1974.
Wessey N. The evaluation of the industrial potential of Nigerian direct reduction steelmaking slag. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hull, Hull. 1988;316.
Knill JK. Industrial Geology, ed. Oxford University Press. 1978;344.
Hamascch CR. British glass. 1991;14. 
Unwana (n.d.); History and Geographical study.
Available:www.en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/inwana Retrieved July 18, 2018
Eze, GC, Olua, CI, Otunwa WC, Ohochukwu M. Physical and chemical analysis of different beach sand for the purpose of making abrasives; 2018.
Wessey N. The physical and geochemical investigation of Effurum river sand at Ugbolokposo and Ugbomro, Uvwie-Aladja, western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences. 2017;4(6).
[Retrieved August 20, 2018]
Wessey N. The Nuckwood, Rookford sand deposit as a glassmaking raw material. M.Sc. thesis, University of Hull, Hull. 1984; 120.