Physical and Geochemical Investigation of Cross River Sand at Ozizza, Ndibe, Kpoghirikpo and Unwana, Afikpo-North Ebonyi State, South-East Nigeria

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Christian Okonkwo
Agha Ndukwe
Mbabuike Ikenna
Humphery Okoro
Imah Adindu
Aliegu Ferdinand


High strength, high hardness and very tough engineering material derived from geologically occurring minerals and processed into a tool that rubs or wears off by friction is regarded as an abrasive. Abrasives are produced in different forms and shapes and they afford good opportunities for precision scraping away or machining. In this empirical paper, effort is made in establishing a case for the production of abrasive tools that are formulated with silicon carbide and aluminium oxide as catalytic raw materials. These are locally found in the researchers’ locality a place that has many geological deposits of solid minerals. At each of Ozizza, Ndibe, Kpoghirikpo and Unwana beaches, eleven samples of sand were collected at random locations from the Cross River that is flowing through Ozizza down to Unwana for physical and geochemical investigation to determine its suitability for abrasive making. Sand at the four locations were subjected to physical and geochemical investigation. Generally, the sand was physically characterized by bright colours of white, brown and yellow. Some samples at some locations contained dark specks of organic matter. From the distribution, the sand is generally of medium grade size as shown by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Geochemically by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, the oxide contents are: SiO2 (91.73%), CaO (0.045%), Al2O3 (4.24%), Fe2O3 (1.36%), TiO2 (0.21%), K2O (0.86%). The silica content (91.73%) of the sand is well above the industrial specification of 80% for sanitary ware making and suitable for the silica brick industry, for road dressing mixed with special asphalt. The physical and geochemical property results indicate that the sand is a good material for direct use in abrasive (sand paper and sand blasting).making, glass making and in the building and construction industries.

River sand, physical properties, geochemical properties, abrasive

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How to Cite
Okonkwo, C., Ndukwe, A., Ikenna, M., Okoro, H., Adindu, I., & Ferdinand, A. (2020). Physical and Geochemical Investigation of Cross River Sand at Ozizza, Ndibe, Kpoghirikpo and Unwana, Afikpo-North Ebonyi State, South-East Nigeria. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 11(2), 47-60.
Original Research Article


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