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This paper was aimed to review the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil erosion and conservation efforts being practiced in Ethiopia. In the country, there is highly fluctuating dynamics of soil erosion and its loss rate is large as per the stated international standards. Even if the efforts to conserve soil and water in the country are affected by different factors like agro ecology and the choice of conservation measures, it was practiced since 1970s. Apart from the government’s effort as well as the contribution of different non-governmental organizations in increasing the awareness and understanding towards the impacts of soil erosion, the land tenure system, the existence of poor technology, lack of finance, limited technical support and limited participation of the local community are some of the challenges in Ethiopia restricting the effectiveness of conservation efforts. In addition, the research activities done regarding soil and water conservation in the country are not following integrated and participatory approach. Thus, this makes the efforts regarding research and finding out the best approach for sustainable soil and water conservation practices inefficient. Therefore, promoting integrated and participatory approach as well as linking with income generating business like carbon trading through climate change mitigation is the best options for the expansion and sustainability of soil and water conservation measures in Ethiopia.
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