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Some data suggested that the seeds of water melon may have therapeutic benefits. We here attempted to determine ameliorative effects of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus (water melon) seeds on alloxan-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity on wistar rats. Rats were divided into 11 groups, with each group consisting of 3 rats. Groups 2-11 received single dose of 120 mg/kg b.wt. of alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. Groups 4 and 5 orally received a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. of metformin for 7 & 21 days. Groups 6, 8 and 10 orally received 200 mg/kg b.w., 400 mg/kg b.w., and 600 mg/kg b.w. of the extract respectively for 7 days while groups 7, 9 and 11 orally received same doses respectively for 21 days. The most abundant phytochemicals present in the seeds sample were flavonoids mainly catechin (70.88 ± 0.21) and anthocyanin (42.11 ± 0.89). Blood samples were collected 24 hours after 7 and 21 days of treatment. Biochemical analyses were conducted on liver-injury, kidney-injury, and oxidative-stress markers. Liver/kidney histopathology were examined. Result revealed significant (p≤0.05) reduction in liver enzyme activities, creatinine and urea and malondialdehyde levels, while the electrolyte concentrations significantly increased in the extract treated groups on day 7 and 21 when measured against group 1. The histopathological examination revealed regeneration of the liver/kidney tissues in the extract treated groups mostly in 10 and 11. Thus, aqueous extract of water melon seeds ameliorated alloxan induced hepato-/nephron-toxicity in diabetic rats.
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