Ameliorative Effect of Citrullus lanatus (Water Melon) Seeds on Alloxan Induced Hepato and Nephro Toxicity

Main Article Content

H. E. Ogbeifun
D. E. Peters
M. O. Monanu


Some data suggested that the seeds of water melon may have therapeutic benefits. We here attempted to determine ameliorative effects of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus (water melon) seeds on alloxan-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity on wistar rats. Rats were divided into 11 groups, with each group consisting of 3 rats. Groups 2-11 received single dose of 120 mg/kg b.wt. of alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally. Groups 4 and 5 orally received a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. of metformin for 7 & 21 days. Groups 6, 8 and 10 orally received 200 mg/kg b.w., 400 mg/kg b.w., and 600 mg/kg b.w. of the extract respectively for 7 days while groups 7, 9 and 11 orally received same doses respectively for 21 days. The most abundant phytochemicals present in the seeds sample were flavonoids mainly catechin (70.88 ± 0.21) and anthocyanin (42.11 ± 0.89). Blood samples were collected 24 hours after 7 and 21 days of treatment. Biochemical analyses were conducted on liver-injury, kidney-injury, and oxidative-stress markers. Liver/kidney histopathology were examined. Result revealed significant (p≤0.05) reduction in liver enzyme activities, creatinine and urea and malondialdehyde levels, while the electrolyte concentrations significantly increased in the extract treated groups on day 7 and 21 when measured against group 1. The histopathological examination revealed regeneration of the liver/kidney tissues in the extract treated groups mostly in 10 and 11. Thus, aqueous extract of water melon seeds ameliorated alloxan induced hepato-/nephron-toxicity in diabetic rats.

Water melon seeds, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, diabetes.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ogbeifun, H. E., Peters, D. E., & Monanu, M. O. (2020). Ameliorative Effect of Citrullus lanatus (Water Melon) Seeds on Alloxan Induced Hepato and Nephro Toxicity. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 9(4), 1-10.
Original Research Article


Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with antidiabetic potential. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002;81.

Wehner TC. Watermelon; In Vegetables I: Asterraceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodi-caceae and Cucurbitaceae. Springer, New York. 2008;381-418.

Tak J, Jain S. Nutrient potential of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds and its incorporation in product preparation. Food Sciences Research Journal. 2016; 7(2):202-206.

Omigie IO, Agoreyo FO. Effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed on blood glucose and electrolyte parameters in diabetic wistar rats. Journal of Applied Science and Management. 2014;18(2): 231-233.

Babaiwa UF, Erharuyi O, Falodu A, Akerele JO. Phytochemical and Antioxidant properties of Citrullus lanatus seed extracts. Nigeria Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017;16(2):55-60.

Fila WA, Itam EH, Johnson JT, Odey MO, Effiong EE, Dasafunjo KY, Ambo EE. Comparative proximate composition of watermelon Citrullus lanatus, squash Cucurbita pepo L and rambutan Nephelim lapacuum. Inferatial Journal of Science and Technology. 2013;2:81-88.

Varghese S, Narmadha R, Gomathi D, Kalaiselvi M, Devaki K. Evaluation of hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic seed extracts of Citrullus lanatus. The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2013;2(6):31-40.

Aboyomi AI, Adewoye EO, Olaleye SB, Salami AT. Effect of magnesium pre-treatment on alloxan induced hyperglycemia in rats. African Health Sciences. 2011;11(1):79-84.

Boko HY, Mohammad JS, Wazir PM, BT, Gwarzo MY, Zubairu MM. Lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats treated with methanolic extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp. Science World Journal. 2014;9(2):19-24.

Association of Official Analytical Chemicals AOAC. Official methods of Analysis, 15th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists Arlington, Va; 1990.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 3rd Edition, Chapman and Hall, London. 1998;302.
[ISBN-13: 9780412572708]

Millongo-Kone H, Lompo M, Kini F, Asimi S, Guisson IP, Nacoulma O. Evaluation of flavonoids and total phenolic contents of stem bark and leaves of Parkia biogloboss (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae): Free radical scavenging and Antimicrobial activities, Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009;3:70-74.

Schofield P, Mbugua DM, Pell AN. Analysis of condensed tannins: A Review Animal Feed Science Technology. 2001; 91:21-40.

Ayoola PB, Adeyeye A, Adelowo F, Onawumi OO. Evaluation of the chemical and nutritiojal values of some Nigeria watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Journal of Laboratory Science. 2012;1:37-41.

Inuwa HM, Aina VO, Baba G, Aimola I, Amoa T. Comparative determination of antinutritional factors in groundnut oil and palm oil. Advanced Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011;3(4):275-279.

Amadi PU, Agomuo EN, Bob-Chile Agada A, Njoku UC, Ifeanacho MO, Okereke CJ, Iheka CU, Osuoha JO. Toxicities selected medicinal plants, and floras of lower phyla. Alexandria Journal of Medicine. 2018;54; 587-596.

Agomuo EN, Amadi PU, Adumekwe CW. Gestational geophagia affects nephrocardiac integrity, ATP-driven proton pumps, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and F2-isoprostane status. Medical Sciences. 2019;7(2):pii: E13.
DOI: 10.3390/medsci7020013
PubMed I.D: 30678242

Tietz NW. Clinical guide to laboratory tests, 3rd Edition. Saunder Company Philadelphia. 1995;518-519.

Scott MD, Lubin BH, Zuo L, Kuypers FA. Epythrocyte defense against hydrogen peroxide; preeminent importance of catalase. Journal of Laboratory and Chemical Medicine. 1991; 118(1):7-16.

Ogbeifun HE, Anacletus FC, Ighorodje CC. Assessment of ameliorating properties of methanol extract of Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated with extract of Allium cepa on oxidative stress markers of CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in wistar rats. Elixir Biological Science. 2016;96(2016):41595-41599.

Tripathi YB, Upadhyay AK, Chaturvedi P. Antioxidant properties of smilax China. Indian Journal of Exprimental Biology. 2001;39:1176-1179.

Davoine C, Farmer EE. Electrophile reactive species. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 2007;10(4):380-386.

Del RD, Stewart AJ, Pellegrini N. A review of recent studies on malonaldehyde as poisonous molecule and biological marker of oxidative damage. Metabolism, Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease. 2005;15(4): 316-328

Baynes JW, Thorpe SR. Role of oxidative stress in diabetes complications in diabetes. Diabetes. 1991;40:405-412.

Moussa SA. Oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Romanian Journal of Biophysics. 2008;18: 225-236.

Hartnett ME, Stratton RD, Browne RW, Rosner BA, Lanhham RJ, Armstrong D. Serum markers of oxidative stress and severity of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(2):234-240.

Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. Polyphenols: Food sources and bioavailability. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004;79:727-747.

Kim HK, Kim MJ, Cho HY, Kim EK, Shin DM. Antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of amaranth (Amaranthus esculantus) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Cell Biochem. Functions. 2006;24:195-199.

Nwanjo HU. Studies on the effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri plasma glucose level and some hepatospecific markers in diabetic wistar rats. International Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 2007;2(2):1-18.

Oppenheimer SJ. Iron and its relation to immunity and infectious disease. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;13(25-2):6165-6355.

Prohp TP, Onoagbe IO. Plasma electrolyte concentrations in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with extracts of Tripiochi scleroxy. Lonkumication. 2014;2(5):154-174.

Gaw A, Cowman RA, O’Reilly DS, Shepherd J. Clinical Biochemistry; An illustrated Color Text. Clinical Biochemistry, New York; 1995.

Eteng MU, Ibekwe HA, Essien AD, Onyeama HP. Effect of Catharanthus roseus on electrolyte derangement induced by chlopropamide (Diabinese) on normoglycemic albino wistar rats. Bioresources. 2008;62(2):364-366.

Ikpi DE, Obembe AO, Nku CO. Aqueous leaf extract of Rothmannia longiflora improves basal metabolic rate and electrolyte parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. 2009;24(1):67-71.

Hossain MA, Shah MD, Gnanaraj C, IqbaL M. In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids, content and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2011;4:717-721.

Maisuthisakul P, Pangsawatmanit, Gordon MH. Assesment of phenolic content and free radical-scavenging capacity of some Thai indigenous plants. Food Chemistry. 2007;100:1409-1418.

Traynor J, Mactier R, Geddes CC, Fox JG. How to measure renal function in clinical practice. British Medicine Journal. 2006; 333(7571):733-737.

Harita N, Hayashi T, Sato KK. "Lower serum creatinine is a new risk factor of type 2 diabetes: the Kansai healthcare study". Diabetes Care. 2009;32 (3):424–6.

Klein JD, Blount MA, Sands JM. ‘Urea transport in the kidney’. Comprehensive Physiology. 2011;1:699-729.

Umar M. Phytochemical screening and antidiabetic effect of extracts of the seeds of Citrullus lanatus in alloxan-induced diabetic albino mice. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2015;5(3):051-054.

Gwana AM, Bagudu BU, Sadiq AB, Abdullahi MM. Determinations of phytochemical, vitamin, minewral and proximate compositions of varieties of watermelon seeds cultivated in Borno state, North-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2014;3(4):238-245.