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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders which result to excessive accumulation of blood sugar over a prolonged period. Due to higher risk of diabetes mellitus to cardiovascular disease, it is crucial to identify and address these cardiovascular risks. This study assessed the effects of diabetes on levels of some blood lipids and its atherogenic indices in diabetic male rats.
Methods: This is an experimental study that involved 40 apparently healthy adult male albino rats (wistar strain) which were randomly assigned to five groups (A, B, C, D and E) of eight (8) animals each. Group A (Normal Control of No intervention for 72 hours), Group B (Diabetic rats of 72 hours post diabetes induction), Group C (metformin treated diabetic rats), Group D (Diabetic Control untreated) and Group E (Normal Control of 3 weeks post diabetes induction). Seven milliliters of fasting blood sample were collected from all the subjects. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) were determined using standard methods. Atherogenic indices, non HDL cholesterol (Non HDL-c), cardio risk ratio (CRR), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), atherogenic coefficient (AC) and atherosclerosis index (AI) were calculated. It was analyzed statistically using SPSS version 23.0.
Results: The mean values of HDL-c was significantly higher in the treated diabetic group when compared with untreated diabetic control (P<0.05) while TC, TG, LDL-c, VLDL-c, Non HDL-c, CRR, AIP, AC and AI were significantly lower in treated diabetics when compared to the untreated diabetic control (P<0.05). Also, blood mean levels of HDL-c were significantly lower in the diabetic groups (treated and untreated) when compared with non diabetic control (P<0.05) while TC, TG, LDL-c, VLDL-c, Non HDL-c, CRR, AIP, AC and AI were significantly higher in the diabetic groups (treated and untreated) when compared with non diabetic control (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The study suggests that atherogenic indices can serve as predictive pointer for future cardiovascular event especially, when LDLc value is normal. Also hyperglycemia could cause significant alterations of lipids, but metformin treatment has showed not only hypoglycemic effect, but also anti-hyperlipidemic properties.
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