Variation in Leaf Constituents and Biochemical Indices of Rats given Psidium guajava from Two Different Areas

Main Article Content

Grace Ekpo
Adindu Eze
Amadi Benjamin
Odey Michael
Ogar Ishade Sunday
Dasimeokuna Princewill


Variation in leaf (heavy metal) constituents and biochemical indices of rats given leaf samples of Psidium guajava from two different areas were evaluated. Results obtained for heavy metal constituents the leaf samples showed the presence of mercury (0.14±0.01 mg/100 g), lead (2.90±0.10 mg/100 g), cadmium (0.05±0.01 mg/100 g), copper (5.01±0.17 mg/100 g), chromium (0.40±0.01 mg/100 g), and cobalt (5.64±0.64 mg/100 g) in P. guajava leaf sample from crude oil polluted area. Only copper (0.80±0.20 mg/100 g) was observed in P. guajava leaf sample from non-crude oil polluted area. The biochemical studies on the leaf samples were carried out using standard methods. Thirty-six rats were distributed in six subgroups with six rats each, under three main groups (I-III). Three of the subgroups were placed on P. guajava leaves from crude oil polluted area (designated Ia, IIa and IIIa) while the other three subgroups were placed on P. guajava leaves from non-crude oil polluted area (designated Ib, IIb and IIIb). The haematological parameters of rats placed on P. guajava from crude oil polluted area such as RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, and MCH were significantly affected (p<0.05) when compared to those of rats  placed on P. guajava from non-crude oil polluted area. AST and ALT liver enzymes significantly increased in rats placed on P. guajava leaves from crude oil polluted area against rats placed on P. guajava leaves from non-crude oil pollute area. Since data obtained with animals become more severe when translated to humans, it therefore becomes pertinent for those that use medicinal plants from crude oil polluted areas to become aware of the possible effects of using such plants. This study has evaluated the variation in leaf constituents and biochemical indices of rats given leaf samples of Psidium guajava from two different areas were evaluated.

Biochemical studies, heavy metals, polluted areas, Psidum guajava.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ekpo, G., Eze, A., Benjamin, A., Michael, O., Sunday, O. I., & Princewill, D. (2019). Variation in Leaf Constituents and Biochemical Indices of Rats given Psidium guajava from Two Different Areas. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 7(3), 1-8.
Original Research Article


Sanchez-Zapata E, Fernández-López J, Pérez-Alvarez JA. Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) commercialization: Health aspects, composition, properties and food applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2012; 11(4):366-377.

Duru M, Eboagwu I, Kalu, W, Odika, P. Nutritional, anti-nutritional and biochemical studies on the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. EC Nutrition. 2019;14(1):36- 59.

Duru M, Nwadike C, Ezekwe A, Nwaogwugwu C, Eboagwu I, Odika P, Njoku S, Chukwudoruo C. Evaluation of nutritional, anti-nutritional and some biochemical studies on Pleurotus squarrosulus (Mont.) singer using rats. African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 2018;12(2):7-27.

Duru M, Amadi C, Ugbogu A, Eze A, Amadi B. Phytochemical, vitamin and proximate composition of Dacryodes edulis fruit at different stages of maturation. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 2012;2(4):437-441.

Benjamin A, Nchekwue O, Chioma A, Amadike U, Majesty D. Elemental, amino acid and phytochemical constituents of three different species of eggplant fruits. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 2013;3(2):200-203.

Amadi BA, Arukwe U, Duru MKC, Amadi CT, Adindu EA, Egejuru L, Odika PC. Phytonutrients and antinutrients screening of D. edulis fruits at different maturation stages. Journal of Natural Product Plant Resource. 2012;2(4):530-533.

Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in African. Spectrum Books Ltd, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1993;191-289.

Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigeria medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(7):685-688.

World Health Organization (WHO). Promotion and development of traditional medicine. Tech. Rep. Series. 1978;622.

Nwachukwu MI, Duru MKC, Amadi BA, Nwachukwu IO. Comparative evaluation of phytoconstituents, antibacterial activities and proximate contents of fresh, oven dried uncooked and cooked samples of Buchholzia coriacea seed and their effects on hepatocellular integrity International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention. 2014;3(6):41-49.

Nwachukwu MI, Duru MKC, Nwachukwu IO. Antifungal properties and effect of fresh, oven dried uncooked and cooked seeds of Buchholzia coriacea on haematology and kidney. Elixir Food Science. 2013;64:19350-19356.

Nwachukwu MI, Duru MKC, Nwachukwu IO, Obasi CC, Uzoechi AU, Ezenwa CM, Anumodu CK. In-vitro phytochemical characterization and antibacterial activity of Newbouldia laevis (boundary tree) on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2017;2(1):30-36.

Duru MKC, Agomuo EN, Amadi BA. Biochemical studies on “Udu” an antimalarial concoction used in Umunchi village, Isiala Mbano L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria. Continental J. Pharmacology and Toxicology Research. 2012;5(2):28–34.

Olemoforo PNC. Assessment of the environmental impact of petroleum activities in Port Harcourt and environs. Unpublished M.Sc Thesis, environmental management and protection, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 1994.

Villhauer EB, Brinkman JA, Naderi GB, Dunning BE, Mangold BL, Mone MD, Russell ME, Weldon SC, Hughes TE. 1-[2-[(5-Cyanopyridin-2-yl) amino] ethylamino] acetyl-2-(S)-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile: A potent, selective and orally bioavailable dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor with antihyperglycemic properties. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2002;45(12):2362-2365.

Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigeria medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(7):685-688.

Okigbo RN, Mmeka EC. An appraisal of phytomedicine in Africa. KMITL Sci.Tech J. 2006;6:83-94.

Ajose FOA. Some Nigerian plants of dermatologic importance. Int. J. Dermatology. 2007;46:48-55.

Okwu DE, Uchegbu R. Isolation characterization and antibacterial activity screening of methexyamine tetrahy droxyantho cyanides from Detarium senegalense gmelin stem bark. Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem. 2009;3:1-5.

Calixto JB. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicine phytotherapeutic agents. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2000;33:179- 189.

Neuwinger HD. African traditional medicine, a dictionary of plants application, Medpharm GmbH Publishers, Stuttgart, German. 2000;589.

Duru M, Amadi B, Ugbogu A, Eze A. Effect of “udu” an antimalarial herbal preparation on visceral organ weight and blood lipid profiles in wistar rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Clinical Sciences. 2014;8:1-7.

Duru MKC, Amadi BA, Agomuo EN, Njoku VO. The effect of fresh, oven dried uncooked and cooked seeds of Buchholza coriacea on weight of visceral organs, tissue lipid and testosterone. Proceedings of the 37th Annual International Conference, Workshop & Exhibition of Chemical Society of Nigeria. 2014;127-132.

Duru MKC, Amadi BA, Amadi CT, Lele KC, Anudike JC, Chima-Ezika OR, Osuocha, K. Toxic effect of carica papaya bark on body weight, haematology, and some biochemical parameters. Biokemistri. 2012;24(2):67-71.

Duru MKC, Amadi BA, Eze AE, Ugbogu AE, Onuoha N. In vivo studies of Solanum aethiopicum fruit on some biochemical parameters using rats. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2013;5(2): 1-4.

Duru MKC, Arukwe U, Amadi BA. Bioactive constituents and macronutrients composition of anti-malarial concoction used in Umunchi village in Isiala Mbano L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria. International Science Research Journal. 2011;3:61-64.

Yakubu, MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji TA. Haematological evaluation in male albino rats following chronic administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2007;3:34.

Duru M, Amadi B, Agomuo E, Eze A. Chemical profile of an anti-malarial concoction “Udu” used in Umunchi autonomous community in Isiala Mbano L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Science. 2012;3(3):444-447.

Olaniyan MF. Cholesterol lowering effect of guava leaves (Psidium guajava) extract on egg yolk induced hypercholestero-laemic rabbits. Journal of Biology and Nature. 2017;7(1):24-27.

Gutierrez RMP, Mitchell S, Solis RV. Psidum guajava. A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008;117:1-27.

Hawrelak J. Medicinal herb monograph: Guava (Psidium guajava). J. Aust. Traditional Med. Soc. 2003;9:25-29.

Adeyemi OS, Akanji MA, Ekanem JT. Ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava influences protein and bilirubin level Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats. Journal of Biological Sciences. 2012; 12(2):111-116.

Offor CE, Okoro JA, Ibiam UA, Nwangwu SCO. Effect of ethanol leaf-extract of Psidium guajava on lipid profile. Global Journal of Pharmacology. 2015;9(1):77-80.

Okwu DE. Phytochemicals, vitamins and mineral contents of two medicinal plants. Int. J. Med. Adv. Sci. 2005;1(4): 375-381.

National Institute of Health. Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare. Washington D.C: NIH Publication. 1985;85-123.

Alexander RR, Griffths JM. Haematocrit in Basic Biochemical Methods, JohnWiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition; 1993.

Dacie JV, Lewis SM. Practical haemato-logy, Seventh edition edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1991.

Jain NC. Veterinary Hematology. (Jain NC Ed) Lea and Ferbiger, Philadelphia; 1986.

Adebayo AH, Abolaji AO, Opata TK, Adegbenro IK. Effects of ethanoloic leaf extract of Chrysophyllum albidum G. on biochemical and haematological parameters of albino wistar rats. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2010;9(14):2145-2150.

Celik I, Suzek H. The hematological effects of methyl parathion in rats. J. Haz. Mat. 2008;153:1117-21.

Adebayo JO, Adesokan AA, Olatunji LA, Buoro DO, Soladoye AO. Effect of Ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves on haematological and serum lipid variables in rats. Biochem. 2005;17:45.

Amadi BA, agomuo EN, Duru MKC. Toxicological studies of Asima triloba leaves on hematology, liver, kidney using rats model. International Science Research Journal. 2003;4(2):11-17.

Bergmeyer AU, Scheiba, P, Wahlefeld AH. Optimization of methods for aspartate aminotransferase and alanine amino-transferase. Clinical Chem. 2004;24:58- 73.

Aliyu R, Adebayo AH, Gatsing D, Garba IH. The effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Commiphora africana (Burseraceae) on rat liver and kidney functions. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2006;2:373-379.

Nduka N. Clinical biochemistry for students of pathology, Animo Press Ltd, Nigeria. 1999;142-143.

Ugbogu AE, Okezie E, Uche-Ikonne C, Duru M, Atasie OC. Toxicity evaluation of the aqueous stem extracts of Senna alata in wistar rats. American Journal of Biomedical Research, 2016;4(4):80-86.