Temporal Variability of Particulate Matter in Urban Area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Christopher U. Onuorah
T. G. Leton
O. L. Y. Momoh


Particulate matter pollution poses serious health concern to public health in Nigeria especially at elevated concentration. Its size is very vital in determination of its long stay in the atmosphere as well as its deposition in human respiratory system. This study analyzes the temporal variation of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations and its ratio in urban area of Port Harcourt. The study was carried out in Woji, area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, from May to December 2018 using Aerocet 531 particulate monitor while meteorological variables were monitored via Misol wireless weather station mounted 10 m above the ground level. The highest particle pollution occurred in the month of December with an average daily PM2.5 concentration of 58.8 μgm-3 and PM10 concentration of 164.5 μgm-3, which exceeds WHO and USEPA daily threshold. These particle pollution exceedances recorded the dry season month of December was due to high atmospheric stability with dry dusty north east trade wind associated with harmattan. Also,  Particulate matter concentration are usually lower during the weekends than weekdays with high PM level occurring at night from 8:00 PM to 9:00 AM in the morning with the peak at 8.00 AM. This shows that the weekdays experienced elevated PM level than weekend as a result of high industrial, commercial and traffic activities emitting particles within the weekdays. Also the average PM2.5/PM10 ratio for wet and dry season was 0.3 respectively. This shows that the town is town is predominated by coarse particle. 

PM2.5, PM10, particulate matter, temporal variation, PM2.5/PM10 ratio, Woji, Port Harcourt Nigeria

Article Details

How to Cite
Onuorah, C. U., Leton, T. G., & Momoh, O. L. Y. (2019). Temporal Variability of Particulate Matter in Urban Area of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 7(2), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajarr/2019/v7i230175
Original Research Article


Turaliog˘lu FS, Nuhog˘lu A, Bayraktar H. Impacts of some meteorological parameters on SO2 and TSP concentrations in Erzurum, Turkey. Chemosphere. 2005;59:1633-1642.

Das R, Khezri B, Srivastava B, Datta S, Sikdar PK, Webster RD, Wang X. Trace element composition of PM2.5 and PM10 from Kolkata–A heavily polluted Indian metropolis. Atmospheric Pollution Resources. 2015;6:742–750.

Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN. Atmospheric chemistry and physics: From air pollution to climate change, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey; 2006.

Gupta AB. Vehicular air pollution and asthma. Asthma Sanjeevani. 1999;5(2):3–5.

WHO. Air quality guidelines global update published by World Health Organization; 2005. Available:http://www.euro.who.int/document t/E87950.pdf.

Zulu EM, Beguy D, Ezeh AC, Bocquier P, Madise NJ, Cleland J, Falkingham J. Overview of migration, poverty and health dynamics in Nairobi City’s slum settlements. Journal of Urban Health.

Dockery DW, Pope CA. III. Outdoor air I: particulates. In: Steenland K. Savitz DA, eds., Topics in environmental epidemiology, Oxford University Press, Oxford; 1997.

Balogun VS, Orimoogunje OOI. An assessment of seasonal variation of air pollution in Benin City. Southern Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences. 2015;5:209–218.

Harrison RM, Giorio C, Beddows DC, Dall’Osto M. Size distribution of airborne particles controls outcomes of epidemiological studies. Sci. Total Environ. 2010;409:289–293.

Said Munir. Analysing Temporal Trends in the Ratios of PM2.5/PM10 in the UK. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 2017; 17:34–48.
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2016.02.0081

World Health Organization (WHO). Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. WHO Regional Publications, European Series No. 91, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen; 2000.

Weli VE. Spatial and Seasonal Influence of Meteorological Parameters on the concentration of Suspended Particulate Matter in an Industrial city of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Developing Country Studies www.iiste.org .ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online). 2014;4(10): 112-120.

Obioh IB, Ezeh GC, Abiye OE, Alpha A, Ojo EO, Ganiyu AK. Atmospheric particulate matter in Nigerian megacities. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. 2013;95:379–385.

Offor IF, Adie GU, Ana GR. Review of particulate matter and elemental composition of aerosols at selected locations in Nigeria from 1985-2015. Journal of Health & Pollution. 2016;6(10): 1-18.
DOI: 10.5696/2156-9614-6-10.

Owoade OK, Fawole OG, Olise FS, Ogundele LT, Olaniyi HB, Almeida MS, Ho MD, Hopke PK. Characterization and source identification of airborne particulate loadings at receptor site-classes of Lagos mega-city, Nigeria. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 2013; 63(9):1026-1029.
DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2013.793627

Taiwo AM, Arowolo TA, Abdullahi KL, Taiwo OT. Particulate matter pollution in Nigeria: A review. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Rhodes, Greece. 2015;3-5.

Ngele SO, Onwu FK. Comparison of particulate matter levels in major urban centres in Eastern Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Sci. 2015;5:765-775.