Reversibility, Body Weight and Histo-architectural Alterations in the Anterior Pituitary Gland of Aqueous Azadirachta indica Extract Fed Wistar Rats

Main Article Content

P. R. C. Esegbue
A. J. Uyovwiesevwa
G. T. Olowe
O. A. Udi


Several studies have reported the importance of neem plant (Azadirachta indica) with results showing it to be both medicinal and pharmacological in the property. However, little or no available record(s) relates its effect on body weights and the anterior pituitary gland. Consequently, the current study investigated the effect of aqueous extract Azadirachta indica on the anterior pituitary gland using Wistar rats as an experimental model. Twelve (12) healthy male Wistar rats of between 130 – 150 g were grouped as follows; Group I (normal control) received normal rat feed ad libitum, experimental groups II and III received normal feed + 200 mg/kg and normal feed + 300 mg/kg of aqueous leave extract of Azadirachta indica respectively. For each group, Body weights were checked weekly for a total of three (3) weeks. At the end of the experiments, the animals were sacrificed, and histology of the pituitary glands was assessed. Result in a statistically insignificant increase (p< 0.05) in body weights of control compared with experimental rats, with mild observational elevation in pituitary histo-architecture for experimental compared to the control group. Thus, reversal weights are very supportive factors of Wistar rats and the histological effect of Azadirachta indica on the anterior pituitary gland in Wistar rats. The study also observed axonic fibres (using H and E x 10) with neural tissues in 200 mg/kg extract-treated rats, implicating an increase in cellularity, mild vascular congestion and tissue separation on Wistar rats.

Azadirachta indica, neem leaf, pituitary gland.

Article Details

How to Cite
Esegbue, P. R. C., Uyovwiesevwa, A. J., Olowe, G. T., & Udi, O. A. (2019). Reversibility, Body Weight and Histo-architectural Alterations in the Anterior Pituitary Gland of Aqueous Azadirachta indica Extract Fed Wistar Rats. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 6(4), 1-7.
Original Research Article


Amabe O. Akpantah, Moses B. Ekong, Kelechi C. Uruakpa, Mfon Akpaso, Mokutima A. Eluwa, Theresa B. Ekanem. Gonadal histo-morphologies and serum hormonal milieu in female rats treated with azadirachta indica leaf extract. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2010; 8(4):185-190.

Anyaehie USB. Changes in some physiological parameters of HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral and neem (Azadirachta indica) extract in Enugu, Nigeria. Ph.D. Thesis, Abia State University, Uturu; 2009.

Bhattacharyya KG, Sharma A. Azadirachta indica leaf powder as an effective biosorbent for dyes: A case study with aqueous congo red solutions. Journal of Environmental Management. 2004;71(3): 217-22.

Biswas K, Chattopadhyay I, Banerjee RK, Bandyopadhyay U. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Curr. Sci. 2002;82(11):1336–1345.

David PH, Hommel M, Miller LH. Udeinya IJ, Oligino LD. Parasite sequestration in plasmodium falciparum malaria: Spleen and antibody modulation of cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes. Proc NaH. Acad. Sci. 1983;80(16):5075-5079.

Ekanem OJ. Has Azadirachta indica (Dogonyaro) any antimalarial activity? Niger Med. J. 2001;8:8-11. Gandhi, M. (1988). Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 23(1):39-51.

Ganguli S. Neem: A therapeutic for all seasons. Current Science. 2002;82(11): 1304.

Obikaonu HO, Okoli IC, Opara MN, Okoro VMO, Ogbuewu IP, Etuk EB, Udedibie ABI. Haematological and serum biochemical indices of starter broilers fed leaf meal of neem (Azadirachta indica). Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2012; 8(1):71-79.

Johnson S, Morgan ED, Peiris CN. Development of the major triterpenoids and oil in the fruit and seeds of neem (Azadirachta indica). Journal of Annals Botany. 1996;78:383-388.

Masoumeh MM. Sterility effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract on male rat. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility. 2002;3(2):10.

Mbah AU, Udeinya IJ, Shu EN, Chijioke CP, Nubila T, Udeinya F, Muobuike A, Mmuobieri A, Obioma MS. Fractionated neem leaf extract is safe and increases CD4+ cell levels in HIV/AIDS patients. AM. J. Ther. 2007;14(4):369-374.

Bhuiyan MM, Nishimura M, Matsumura S, Shimono T. Antibacterial effects of the crude Azadirachta indica neem bark extract on streptococcus sobrinus. Pediatr Dent J. 1997;7(1):61-64.

Mongkholkhajornsilp D, Douglas S, Douglas PL, Elkamel A, Teppaitoon W, Pongamphai S. Supercritical CO2 extraction of nimbin from neem seeds-A modeling study. Journal of Food Engineering. 2004;71: 331-340.

Natarajan V. Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) on the growth pattern of dermatophytes. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2003;21(2):98-101.

Nwafor SV, Akah PA, Okoli CO, Onyirhioha KC, Nwosu CS. Interaction between chloroquine sulphate and aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica a. juss (Meliaceae) in rabbits. Acta Pharm. 2003;53:305-311.

Ofusori DA. Regenerative potential of aqueous extract of neem Azadirachta indica on the stomach and ileum following ethanol- induced mucosa lesion in adult wistar rats. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2008;5(2).

Prakasha AO, Tewaria RK, Mathur R. Non-hormonal post - coital contraceptive action of neem oil in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988;23:53-59.

Ragasa CY, Nacpil ZD, Natividad GM, Tada M, Coll JC, Rideout JA. Tetranortriterpenoids from Azadirachta indica. Journal of Phytochemistry. 1997; 46:555-558.

Raveendra MP. Evaluation of antiplaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract gel- a 6week clinical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;90(1):99-103.

Schmutterer H, Ascher KRS, Isman MB. The neem tree: Azadirachta indica a. juss and other meliaceous plants. Weinheim. 1995;1-3.

Stix G. Village pharmacy: The neem tree yields products from pesticides to soap. Sci. Am. 1992;266:132.