Main Article Content
The intelligent sports analysis requires exactly modeling the kinematics and dynamics of a soccer ball in a three-dimensional (3D) space. To address this problem, a 3D dynamic model of the soccer ball is developed to simulate the motion and capture the kinematics and dynamics performance. The model consists of three sub-models governed by the classic mechanics and formulated as time-dependent ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The simulations involve visualizing the ball traveling trajectory, which contains the instantaneous force information; and plotting the time-varying displacement and force curves. The model is validated by comparison of the results from this simulation and another theoretical calculation. A case study is presented to simulate the projectile motion of a soccer ball in a virtual environment. The spatial kinematics and dynamics results are obtained and analyzed. The results show the max projectile height and range, and kick force increase with the increase of the initial velocity. This research is significant to simulate the soccer ball motion for promoting the planning, evaluation, and optimization of trajectory.
Sokolnikoff IS, Sokolnikoff ES. Higher mathematics for engineer and physicists. McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, USA; 1941.
MSC Software. Automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems. Technic Manual, University of Michigan, USA; 2004.
Goff JE, Carré MJ. Trajectory analysis of a soccer ball. Am J Phys. 208;77:1020–1027.
Gupta G, Panigrahi PK. Curve kick aerodynamics of a soccer ball. Proceeding of the Fortieth National Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, Himachal Pradesh; 2013.
Asai T, Seo K, Kobayashi O, Sakashita R. Fundamental aerodynamics of the soccer ball. Sports Engineering. 2007;10:101–109.
Asai T, Seo K. Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls. SpringerPlus. 2013; 2:171.
Bray K and Kerwin DG. Modelling the flight of a soccer ball in a direct free kick.J Sports Sci. 2003;21:75–85.
NASA. Drag on a Soccer Ball. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Technic Paper; 2018.
Hroncová D, Grieš M. Trajectories of projectiles launched at different elevation angles and modify design variable in MSC Adams/View. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014;611:198-207.
Alam F, Chowdhury H, Moria H. A comparative study of football aerodynamics. J. Procedia Eng. 2010;2: 2443–2448.
Alam F, Ho H, Chowdhury H. and Subic A. Aerodynamics of baseball. J. Procedia Eng. 2011;13: 207–212.
Zhu ZQ, Chen B, Qiu SH, Wang RX. Simulation and modeling of free kicks in football game and and anslysis on assisted training. Asia Sim. 2017;413-427. Part I, CCIS751.
Smith MR, Hilton DK, Van Sciver SW. Observed drag crisis on a sphere in flowing He I and He II, Phys. Fluids. 1999; 11:751–753.
Synge JL, Griffith BA. Principles of mechanics. McGraw Hill, New York; 1959.
Thomson WT. Theory of vibrations with applications, 4th ed., Prentice-Hall, New York; 1993.