Evaluation of Concentration of Copper, Lead, and Zinc in Different Brands of Cigarette Sold in Keffi Main Market of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Idris Yahaya
Abdullahi A. Mundi
Idris M. Mustapha
Jibrin Isah
Musa Mohammed


Background: Tobacco smoking is one source of heavy metals exposure in the general population. Tobacco smoke has toxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic properties and has been linked to fatal pregnancy outcomes.

Aim: This research was carried out to investigate the concentration of Copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in different cigarette brands sold in Keffi main market of Nasarawa state and compare with recommended standard.

Study Design: To determine the presence of heavy metals in different brands of cigarette sold in Keffi main Market, Nasarawa State, Nigeria and compare them with relevant authorities’ standard.

Place and Duration: The study was carried out in the department of physics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria between March 2018 and November, 2018.

Materials and Methods: Ten brands of cigarette were purchased from Keffi main central market using random sampling. The cigarettes were expose to sun light for 3 hours until they became dry. The filters and papers of the cigarettes were removed after drying and the tobacco content were pulverized using agate mortar and pestle. The processed samples were packaged in a well labelled polyethylene bag. A total of ten samples (one sample per brand) were analyzed using XRF spectrometry.

Results: The range of Cu, Pd, and Zn concentration in ten brands of cigarette were (14.30 to 64.30 mg/kg), (5.43 to 10.55mg/kg), and (12.05 to 160.45 mg/kg) respectively. The brand with the highest concentration of Cu, Pb, and Zn are St. moriz (160.45 mg/kg), London (10.55 mg/kg) and Benson (64.30 mg/kg) respectively, while the lowest concentration found in Bohem (12.05 mg/kg), Excel (5.43 mg/kg), and Yes (14.30 mg/kg) respectively.

Conclusion: The concentration of Cu, Pd, and Zn are high in most of the cigarette brands. Concentration of Pb are above the recommended limit reported in the United Kingdom (1.35mg/kg) and Korea (0.74 mg/kg). Concentration Cu and Zn are also high in the cigarette brands.

Heavy metals, cigarette, tobacco and smoking.

Article Details

How to Cite
Yahaya, I., Mundi, A., Mustapha, I., Isah, J., & Mohammed, M. (2019). Evaluation of Concentration of Copper, Lead, and Zinc in Different Brands of Cigarette Sold in Keffi Main Market of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 4(4), 1-7. Retrieved from http://journalajarr.com/index.php/AJARR/article/view/30119
Original Research Article


Rey M, Turcotte F, Lapointe C, Dewwailly E. High blood Cd levels are not associated with consumption of traditional food among the Inuit of Nunavik. Journal of Toxicology & Environmental Health. 1997; 51(5):5-14.

Shaham J, Meltzer A, Ashkenazi P, Ribak J. Biological monitoring of exposure to Cd, a human carcinogen, as a result of active and passive smoking. Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine. 1996;38(3):1220-1228.

Paakko P, Anttila S, Kalliomaki, P. Cd and Cr as markers of smoking in human lung tissues. Journal of Environmental Research. 1989;49(4):197-207.

Al-Bader A, Omu AE, Dashti H. Chronic cadmium toxicity to sperm of heavy cigarette smokers: Immunomodulation by zinc. Journal of Archives of Andrology. 1999;43(2):135-140.

Kjellstrom T. Exposure and accumulation of cadmium in population from Japan, the United States and Sweden. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1979;28(4):169-197.

Nriagu JO. Part 2, Health effects in Cadmium in the Environment. John Wiley and Sons, New York; 1908.

Fowles J, Dybing B. Aplication of toxicological risk assessment principles to the chemical constituents of tobacco smoke. Tobacco Control. 2003;12:424-430.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. “Inorganic and organic lead compounds”, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 2004;87.

Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Public Law 111–31; 2009.
Available:http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-111publ31/pdf/PLAW-111publ31.pdf (Accessed on 2 December 2013)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health: Atlanta, GA, USA; 2010.

Talhout R, Schulz T, Florek E, Benthem JV, Wester P, Opperhuizen A. Hazardous compounds in tobacco smoke. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2011;8(3): 613- 628.

David Bernhard, Andrea Rossmann, Georg Wick. Metals in cigarette smoke: Critical review. IUBMB Life. 2005;57(12):805– 809.

Barany E, Bergdahl IA, Bratteby LE, Lundh T, Samuelson G, Schutz A, Skerfving S, Oskarsson A. Journal of Environ. Res. 2002;89:72–84.

Diaz RC, Henriquez SP, Lopez BF, Rodriguez RE, Serra ML. Trace Element. J.Med. Biol. 2002;16:75–81.

Lapenna D, Mezzetti A, de Gioia S, Pierdomenico SD, Daniele F, Cuccurullo F. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1995;19:849– 852.

Chiba M. Masironi R. Bull. World Health Organ. 1992;70:269–275.

Mortada WI, Sobh MA, El Defrawy, MM. Med. Sci. Monit. 2004;10:112–116.

Satarug S, Ujjin P, Vanavanitkun Y, Nishijo M, Baker JR, Moore MR. Journal of Toxicology. 2004;204:161–173.

Galan P, Viteri FE, Bertrais S, Czernichow S, Faure H, Arnaud J, Ruffieux D, Chenal S, Arnault N, Favier A, Roussel AM, Hercberg S. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005;59: 1181–1190.

Dorne JL, Kass GE, Bordajandi LR, Amzal B, Bertelsen U, Castoldi AF, Heppner C, Eskola M, Fabiansson S, Ferrari P, et al. Human risk assessment of heavy metals: Principles and applications. Met Ions Life Sci. 2011;8(4):27–60.

Pappas RS. Toxic elements in tobacco and in cigarette smoke: Inflammation and sensitization. Metallomics. 2011;3(5): 1181–1198.

Stojanović D, Nikić D, Lazarević K. The level of nickel in smoker's blood and urine. Cent. European Joornal of Public Health. 2004;12(5):187–189.

Galazyn-Sidorczuk M, Brzóska MM, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J. Estimation of Polish cigarettes contamination with cadmium and lead, and exposure to these metals viasmoking. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2008;137(4):481–493.

Richter PA, Bishop EE, Wang J, Swahn MH. Tobacco smoke exposure and levels of urinary metals in the U.S. youth and adult population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2008;6(6):1930-1946.

Tellez-Plaza M, Navas-Acien A, Caldwell KL, Menke A, Muntner P, Guallar E. Reduction in cadmium exposure in the United States population, 1988–2008: The contribution of declining smoking rates. Environ. Health Perspect. 2012;120:204–209.

Yruela I. Copper in plants. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2005;17(1): 145-156.

Muhammad WA. Concentrations of cadmium and lead in different cigarette brands and human exposure to these metals via smoking. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce. 2011;2(2):140-147.

Watanabe T, Kasahara M, Nakatsuka H, Ikeda M. Cadmium and lead contents of cigarettes produced in various areas of the world. Science of the Total Environment. 1987;66:29-37.

Rosalie VC, Richard J, O’Connor W, Edryd SK, Michael C, Geoffrey TF. Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey Cohort. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2014;11(3): 202-217.
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph110100202

Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Salmela SS, Leppaen A, Pyysalo H. Cigarettes as a source of some trace and heavy metals and pesticides in man, Archives of Environmental Health. 1986;41:49-55.

Kalcher K, Kern W, Pietsch R. Cd and Pb in the smoke of filter Cigarette. Science of the Total Environment. 1993;128:21-35.

Massadeh AM, Alali FQ, Jaradat QM. “Determination of cadmium and lead in different cigarette brands in Jordon. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment. 2005;104:163-170.

Alysson RBS, Fábio C. Risks of heavy metals contamination of soil-pant system by land application of sewage sludge: A review with data from Brazil; 2014.