Evaluation of Concentration of Copper, Lead, and Zinc in Different Brands of Cigarette Sold in Keffi Main Market of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Idris Yahaya
Abdullahi A. Mundi
Idris M. Mustapha
Jibrin Isah
Musa Mohammed

Abstract

Background: Tobacco smoking is one source of heavy metals exposure in the general population. Tobacco smoke has toxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic properties and has been linked to fatal pregnancy outcomes.


Aim: This research was carried out to investigate the concentration of Copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in different cigarette brands sold in Keffi main market of Nasarawa state and compare with recommended standard.


Study Design: To determine the presence of heavy metals in different brands of cigarette sold in Keffi main Market, Nasarawa State, Nigeria and compare them with relevant authorities’ standard.


Place and Duration: The study was carried out in the department of physics, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria between March 2018 and November, 2018.


Materials and Methods: Ten brands of cigarette were purchased from Keffi main central market using random sampling. The cigarettes were expose to sun light for 3 hours until they became dry. The filters and papers of the cigarettes were removed after drying and the tobacco content were pulverized using agate mortar and pestle. The processed samples were packaged in a well labelled polyethylene bag. A total of ten samples (one sample per brand) were analyzed using XRF spectrometry.


Results: The range of Cu, Pd, and Zn concentration in ten brands of cigarette were (14.30 to 64.30 mg/kg), (5.43 to 10.55mg/kg), and (12.05 to 160.45 mg/kg) respectively. The brand with the highest concentration of Cu, Pb, and Zn are St. moriz (160.45 mg/kg), London (10.55 mg/kg) and Benson (64.30 mg/kg) respectively, while the lowest concentration found in Bohem (12.05 mg/kg), Excel (5.43 mg/kg), and Yes (14.30 mg/kg) respectively.


Conclusion: The concentration of Cu, Pd, and Zn are high in most of the cigarette brands. Concentration of Pb are above the recommended limit reported in the United Kingdom (1.35mg/kg) and Korea (0.74 mg/kg). Concentration Cu and Zn are also high in the cigarette brands.

Keywords:
Heavy metals, cigarette, tobacco and smoking.

Article Details

How to Cite
Yahaya, I., Mundi, A., Mustapha, I., Isah, J., & Mohammed, M. (2019). Evaluation of Concentration of Copper, Lead, and Zinc in Different Brands of Cigarette Sold in Keffi Main Market of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, 4(4), 1-7. Retrieved from http://journalajarr.com/index.php/AJARR/article/view/30119
Section
Original Research Article

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